Hernando de Alvarado

Brief Biography: 
Hernando de Alvarado was born in 1516 in Las Montañas, Torrelavega, which was under the jurisdiction of the duque of Infantado and today is in the modern province of Cantabria. His place of birth placed him within the Mendoza family orbit. Hernando de Alvarado was either never married or a widower. He may have had three sons: Hernando de Alvarado, Juan Muñoz, and Francisco Muñoz. His father was Juan Sánchez Alvarado and his mother was Mençia de Salazar. Prior to the Expedition, Hernando de Alvarado was a veedor and a captain in the military. Following the expedition, Hernando de Alvarado was a corregidor of Tecoman and a justicia mayor of Colima. He died in December of 1549.
Gender: 
Male
Date of Birth: 
1516
AGE-1540: 
24
Age Set: 
15-25
Birthplace
Country of Origin: 
Spain
Place of Birth (modern province/state/region): 
Cantabria
Place of Birth (City/Town): 
Las Montañas, Torrelavega
Date of Death: 
12/11/1549
Died on the Expedition?: 
No
Last Known Location: 
Mexico City
European Social Status: 
Caballero
Position on Expedition: 
Captain
Within Viceroy Mendoza's Sphere: 
Yes
Pre-Expedition Occupation: 
Veedor
Post Expedition Occupation: 
Corregidor
Justicia mayor
Residence After Expedition: 
La Navidad, Colima, Guadalajara, Mexico City
Ability to sign name: 
Yes
Relatives: 
father: Juan Sánchez de Alvarado; mother:Mençia de Salazar
References-Documentary: 

pre 1530:   

 Orozco y Berra in Dorantes de Carranza, Sumaría relación, 362 [w/Cortés, only about 11 years old]     

1530-1540:

Documentos Cortésianos, IV:118 [veedor w/Cortés to the Mar del Sur; salary of 30 pesos]

 AGI, Justicia, 258, pieza 1, “Relacion de los salarios” [fol. 800r: a hernando de alVarado...cL pesos]

AGI, Justicia, 266, Quaderno 2 Probanza of don Antonio de Mendoza” [witness #6, native of Las Montañas in Castilla, estante in Mexico City, 30 more or less; doesn't answer about Luis de Leon, indio; Question 122: at the port of La Navidad and in the shipyard where the ships were built; signedQuestion 125: dixo que sabe e a visto que en aver se fecho las dichas e armadas su magestad asy de servido por que por tierra se descubrieron mas de sietecientos leguas de tierra parte de ella poblada que hasta la provincía de Quivira que es mas adelante de Cibola e de los llanos de los barcos e que quando fueron a lo de Cibola el dicho visorey fue con ellos a esta la provincía de Jalisco e vido que yba visitando los pueblos e tierras donde pasaba como era publico e notorio al este testigo que fue en su seguimiento e a lo de Cibola e oyo dezir que volvio el dicho visorey por el valle de Banderas e por la costa de la mar del sur a la villa de Colima e que de su salida e visitacion redimuado? e no vecho? por que lo R dfino todo e lo suso en mas por ciudela? que de antes tener como es publico e notorio; Question 127: when they came from Cíbola to Michoacán, he did not see that any damage had been done there; 14 or 15 years in these places; Question 254: dixo que sabe e vido que quando vino el marques del Valle a esta tierra que puede aver diez e seis anos este testigo vino con el e governaba a la sazon Nuno de Guzmán con el que fue publico e notario que tubo pasion y henemistad no sabe el porque e despues vues? Que ansymesmo estuvo mas e tubo ciertas cosquillas con el presidente que governaba que fue el obispo de Santo Domingo que agora es dean señor e que tambien sabe que a causa del descubrimientos de la tierra de Cibola que fue por yndustra consejo e mandado del dicho visorey y el dicho marques estuvieron en descordia por que el dicho marques dezia que la dicha tierra le convenia al poblarla e que estaba e cuya en su descubrimiento e que por que el dicho visorey no le conquistio enviar a la dicha tierra]

AGI, Contaduría, 1784, N.3 “Cuentas del contador de Lima, Peru, Juan de Cáceres” [Payments: Martín de Olarte, 480 pesos que se le dieron por libranza del dicho mariscal que mostro para comprar cirtas ropas e otras cosas que heran nescesarias para aderecar las personas de Hernando de Alvarado y de otro Juan de Alvarado que son todos 420 pesos cada uno y de cracias e de paz que son 6 soldados los a quien se socorrieron de la compania de don Baltasar de Castilla];

1540-1550

1540, Feb: Muster in Flint & Flint, Documents, Document 12 [captain of artillery, 4 horses, chain mail vest with sleeves, native arms, other appurtenances];

Castañeda in Flint & Flint, Documents, Document 28 [captain of artillery, caballero from Santander];

AGI, Justicia, 267, N.3, “Proceso de Francisco Vázquez” [witness Vázquez de Coronado: their camps were near each other]

AGI, Justicia, 258, pieza 1, “Visita hecha al Virrey, 1544”  [fol. 787v: an Hernando de Alvarado was corregidor of the pueblo de Tecoman 18 August 1544 and renewed 12 Oct. 1545 with a salary of 200 pesos/yr];

AGI, Justicia, 258, pieza 1, “Relacion de los salarios” [fol. 816r:a hernando de alvarado justicia mayor de colima...Aug. 18, 1544...c pesos; fol. 823r:a hernando de alvarado...Oct. 25, 1545...justicia mayor de colima...c pesos; fol. 824v:a hernando de alvarado...Aug. 18, 1545...justicia mayor de colima...xxxiij pesos  ii tomines  viii granos];

AGI, México, 1064, L.1\1\, “Informes,” fol.261r = Boyd-Bowman, Indice geobiográfico, II:7774 = Icaza, Diccionario, #1221 [listed under unmarried and widowed; native of Las Montañas (Toribio de Arenas says Las Montañas is next to Santander, Icaza #1048); son of Juan Sánchez de Alvarado and Mençia de Salazar; has a casa principal and Cabeça de las demas deste apellido; 19 years in Nueva España; came with Cortés (this would be July 1530 and with his new wife, Zuñiaga, Gómara, 395); reconnaissance of the Mar del Sur; in the jornada that Cortés made; on the jornada to Cíbola; by order of the general discovered and conquered more than 200 leagues adelante en las quales descubrio las vacas en todas estas jornadas; served as captain at his own cost with many horses and criados, without salary; has not been remunerated for which reason he lives in need];

AGI, Contaduría, 662, “Tribute accounts, 1533-53” [in April 1547, an investigation of the corregimiento of Damasco and Mabrazcotla (in Colima) is made by Hernando de Alvarado, alcalde mayor de Colima];

González-Leal, Relación Secreta  [pp. 72-73: Vecinos of Guadalajara: includes Melchior Pérez, Antón Pérez de Buscavida, Hernando de Alvarado [Margen: died], a Juan de Sandoval, a Miguel Hernández de Bonilla; pp. 73-78: long list of persons of mixed residence: includes an Hernando de Alvarado] (if Alvarado died in Dec 1549, then the note of his death is probably 1550)]

 AGI, Justicia, 1021, N.2, Pieza 2 “Relación sacada de la probanza, 1551” and Pieza 5  “Probanza de don García López de Cárdenas, 1546” [México, end of 1547 and early 1548 (por parte); [witness: Alvarado, vecino de México, about 31 years old] [could sign his name, no signature] and Pieza 6 “Probanza del fiscal Villalobos” [México, January 10, 1547; Alvarado, natural de La Montaña, estante en México, about 30 years old; no se ha hecho jornada en las yndias mas como xristianos e temerosos de dios e del servicio de su magestad que fue la dicha jornada de Cíbola; la guerra que se hizo a los dichos naturales fue la mas justa y hecho por la mejor orden y manera que de derecho dyvino e humano se pudiese; could sign his name, which is shown as Fernando-no signature];

AGI, Justicia, 261, Pieza 6, 1546, “Visita a don Antonio de Mendoza” [Charges against Licenciado Alonso Maldonado, oidor of the Audiencia of Mexico, witness, 5 Jan 1547, 30 years old more or less, native of La Montaña in the kingdoms of Castilla, signature [fol. 20v];

AGGEC, Juan de la Torre, Registro 3 [p.14-16:1547 June 26; regarding the will of Juan Barragán, deceased; the albacea, Juan de Oliveros, cura and vicario, Colima, gives Hernando de Alvarado a poder to collect from Juan de Villarreal money owed the deceased]

AGGEC, Juan de la Torre, Registro 2 [p.3-4:1548 July 2, Diego de Almodóvar gives poder to Fernando de Alvarado, estante in Mexico City to collect from Diego Garrido];

AGN, Instituciones Coloniales, GD72, Real Audiencia, Mercedes, vol.3,  exp.283, 1550 [fols. 111r y v. July 1550: libramiento a los herederos y albaceas de Hernando de Alvarado, difunto;  (he evidently died December 11, 1549); he was receiving 300 pesos de oro each year, so his heirs and albaceas are owed nearly half a year’s worth (presumably between his last payment July 1549—and the time of his death)]

AGI, Contaduría, 1784, N.3 “Cuentas del contador de Lima, Peru, Juan de Cáceres” [Payments: Juan Rodríguez de Herrera 90 pesos ubo de aver por 2 potros y una yegua que del se compraron que se dieron el un potro a Hernando de Alvarado y el otro a Juan de Alvarado y la yegua a Hernando de Alvarado para yr a servir a su magestad];

1560-1570

AGI, Patronato, 67, R.4 and R.6 [Dec. 1566, Mexico, Francisco Gómez Triguillos de Silva, son of Juan Gómez de Silva and doña Isabel Pasamonte, 40 years in New Spain, was with Mendoza in the Jalisco war, when he came the land was being pacified, first poblador, Francisco Gómez sent 2 men at his own expense (Gerónimo Hernández and Juanes de Saroche), then went personally with 3 men at his own cost, asked to take charge of 3 companies formed to help Gasca in Peru (don Juan de Mendoza, Hernando de Alvarado, and Alonso de Vega), he spent 50,000 pesos on providing the companies with what they needed, although he was reimbursed from the royal treasury he still spent 15,000 pesos of his own; when survivors of the Soto expedition arrived he housed Baltasar de Gallegos, Maldonado and Pechuca, captains]

AHMC, Caja A5, exp.13 [Sept 29, 1569; No fue unicamente el oidor Lebron quien dispuso traslados y congregaciones; antes de el segun leemos en la Relacion de parte de la provincía de Motin (1580), el alcalde mayor de Colima, Hernando de Alvarado (1544-1547), por instrucciones del virrey Mendoza, saco a los naturales que vivian...]

Other Info:

Hillerkuss, Diccionario Biográfico, vol.1 [relative of Pedro de Alvarado y Contreras; came in 1530; served as veedor of Cortés exp. to Baja In 1535; 1544-47, alcalde mayor of Colima; congregated various pueblos in the provincía of Colima resulting in the death of many Indians; died Dec. 11, 1549; between June and Dec. 1549 he had a grant of 300 pesos/year; maybe never married, p.69];

Romero de Solís, Andariegos  [p.33-34]

Relatives:

?AHAG, Justicia, Capellanías, 1593-1620, Caja 1 [Founder: Diego López Ayala; 1st capellán: Andres Gómez Carranza; Guadalajara 17 Oct. 1574, for masses to be said in the capilla that his uncle, Francisco de Estrada had built in the Franciscan monastery, for the souls of his parents and for Francisca de Robles, wife of Estrada; 19 Feb 1611, Luis de Ahumada, vecino, son of Francisco de Estrada; another son-Francisco de Estrada, fol.5r; doña María de Ahumada, daughter of Luis de Ahumada and doña Mariana de Ojeda, deceased; witness: Hernando de Soto, alcalde ordinario, 40 years old (in 1611), fol.9v; granddaughter of Francisco de Estrada, fol.13r; witness: Juan de Servas, Francisco de Estrada the son of Luis was a presbítero; this witness is the grandson of Juan Callejo and doña Caselda de Estrada; doña Petronila de Estrada was a child of Francisco de Estrada, the elder, and sister to Luis and siblings to Bella Estrada Questa; 17 March 1620; witness: Pedro de Medinilla Alvarado, fol.16r, descendant?];

?AHAG, Justicia, Provisorato, 1562-1616, Caja 1 [Carta de Venta; otorgo Pedro de Medinilla Alvarado, descendant? and doña Isabel de Orosco, his wife, a favor de este convento de varias casas linde de casa de Alonzo de la Vera and de Francisco López, merchant, y por la otra parte las casas reales, Guadalajara, 3 Dec. 1577];

?Sevilla del Rio, Breve estudio [p. 92:1596, the haciendas Chiapa and La Capacha were granted to an Hernando de Alvarado (son?) by the conde of Monterrey];

?Romero de Solís, El Convento de Almoloyan [p.47n84, October 13, 1598, Colima, reference is made to an indio named Bernardino who is a criado of an Hernando de Alvarado (son?)];

?AGN, Instituciones Coloniales, GD51, Gobierno Virreinal, General de Parte, Vol.5, exp. 513, 1599 [fol.111: Nov. 6, 1599, an Hernando de Alvarado and two of his brothers (Juan and Francisco Muñoz) are accused of operating a gang of robbers (using other people’s mulatos and negros) from an estancia of ganado mayor within the jurisdiction of Colima; a juez de comisión has been dispatched to Colima to investigate and punish the offenders (this is likely our Alvarado’s son, but maybe not if he never married);

?AGN, Instituciones Coloniales, GD61, Inquisición, Vol. 224, 1572 [fol.22r: 18 June 1572, Hernando de Alvarado, age 27 (born 1545) witness, native and vecino of Mexico]

?AGN, Instituciones Coloniales, GD51, Gobierno Virreinal, General de Parte, Vol.5, exp.513 [son]