Francisco de Cornejo

Brief Biography: 
Francisco de Cornejo was born around 1512 in Salamanca (Salamanca) to Álvaro Cornejo and Ana Maldonada. He was about twenty-eight years old when he went on the Expedition. He came to New Spain in 1527 and served with Guzmán in the conquest of Nueva Galicia. As did other expeditionaries from western Mexico, he joined the Expedition probably as it passed through because he is not listed on the Muster. After the Expedition's return he remained in Guadalajara, where he was a founding citizen of the town's final location. He was an encomendero and held several governmental positions. He married doña Francisca de Velasco and had at least four children: Diego Cornejo, doña Geronima de Velasco, Francisco Cornejo, clerigo presbitero, and Isabel de Temiño. He died some time between 1559 and 1561.
Gender: 
Male
Title (Y/N): 
No
Date of Birth: 
ca. 1512
AGE-1540: 
28
Age Set: 
25-35
Birthplace
Country of Origin: 
Spain
Place of Birth (modern province/state/region): 
Salamanca
Place of Birth (City/Town): 
Salamanca
Date of Death: 
1559-1561
Death Details Known?: 
No
Died on the Expedition?: 
No
Last Known Location: 
Guadalajara, Mexico
European Social Status: 
Commoner
Position on Expedition: 
Horseman
Within Viceroy Mendoza's Sphere: 
No
Post Expedition Occupation: 
Alcalde Mayor
Corregidor
Encomendero
Regidor
Residence After Expedition: 
Guadalajara, New Spain
Married: 
Yes
Name of Spouse: 
doña Francisca de Velasco
Name of Children: 
Diego Cornejo; doña Geronima de Velasco; Francisco Cornejo, clerigo presbitero; Isabel de Temiño
Ability to sign name: 
Yes
Relatives: 
father: Álvaro Cornejo; mother: Ana Maldonada
References-Documentary: 

pre 1530:

Garmendia Leal, Fundadores, p.102 [soldados de Nuño de Guzmán, 1529, listed among the jinetes y peones]

1530-1540:

AGI, Pasajeros, L.2, E.2143 [Aug 23, 1535, doña Francisca de Velasco, daughter of Alonso de Velasco and Francisca López, vecinos of Corral de Almaguer (Toledo), to Nueva España (Cornejo’s wife)]

?AGI, Justicia, 337B [1537: Cornejo is witness: Guadalajara, este testigo estando en la çiUdad de conPostela estando ausenTe el dicho nuño de gusman que hera ydo a la provynçia de panuCo el dicho maimiano [Maximiliano] de angulo fue a la dicha ÇiUdad de conPostela e lleVo yndyos de los que Tiene en encomyenda e este testigo vydo como Un martyn ximenes LleVaBa Çiertos yndyos del dicho Pueblo e que (entre)este oyo decir que heran Veynte los quales el dicho ximenes lleVaba a la Vylla de sant myguel de la proVynçia de CulyaCan ..., signed (no signature on copy); fol. 382v-383r and 749r: 24 years old +/-, (b.~1513), fol. 825r];

1540-1550:

?Garmendia Leal, Fundadores, p.12 [Listed in the Padrón de Tetlán, 1541];

?Fernández Sotelo, La Primigenia ["Fe de las encomiendas", 17 Abril 1542, dada Oñate, refrendada Miguel de Ybayzábal, deposito en Francisco Cornejo, encomiendas of Ixtlan, Tonalá, asi como lo tenia Hernando de Palencia, p.284; w/100 indios, p.299];

?González-Leal, Relación Secreta  [pp. 53-57: Memoria de los pobladores que tienen indios: includes Francisco Vázquez de Coronado, a Melchor Robles, vecino de Guaxaca, don Luis de Castilla, a Francisco Cornejo, a Francisco de Torres, vecino de Pánuco, a Francisco Gutiérrez, vecino de Guaxaca, Ocotepec; pp. 78-81: Xalisco: includes Francisco Cornejo; pp. 85-88: Conquistadores y pobladores de la Nueva Galicia que tienen indios: includes Francisco Cornejo, vecino de Guadalajara, es conquistador de esta Provincía, y casado y tiene dos hijos, tiene el pueblo de Yztlán y una estancia en la comarca de la Purificación, son de poco provecho, suélesele proveer de un alguacilazgo];

?Papeles de Nueva España, “Suma de visitas,” #321 [Yztlan en Nueva Galicia, en Francisco Cornejo, Este pueblo tiene 28 cassas y en ellas 165 personas. Dan de tributo cada año 15 mantas dandoles su amo el algodon, y 4 indios de servicio en Guadalajara y 5 en la estancia, y 2 indias; siembran 1.5 fanegas de trigo y 2 de maiz; dan cada Pascua 20 gallinas de Castilla y 5 de la tierra, y cada Quaresma 5 cantaros de miel y la fruta que ay. Esta 3 leguas de Guadalajara tiene de termino 1.5 leguas]

?AGI, Justicia, 258, pieza 1, “Visita hecha al Virrey, 1544” [fol. 791v: a Francisco de Cornejo was corregidor of the pueblo of Xilotlan and its environs 8 Feb. 1543 and renewed 13 Feb. 1544 with a salary of 150 pesos/yr]

AGI, Justicia, 339, N.1, R.1, “Residencia … Francisco Vázquez de Coronado”  [Cornejo is de oficio and de parte witness, vecino of Guadalajara, is about 30 years old, could sign his name-no signature on copy, had known Vázquez de Coronado since about 1535; February 1545: 25, known Vázquez de Coronado 10 years; went to Cíbola; p.401: Vázquez de Coronado was not absent for 2 years];

AGI, Justicia, 339, N.1, R.3 [August 1544: concerning certain pueblos, Cornejo is de oficio witness, vecino of Guadalajara, has known Cristóbal de Oñate for 14 or 15 years, could sign his name (no signature on copy)];

AHAG, Gobierno, Escrituras, General, 1579-1735, Tierras y Molinos de Santa Ynés, 1690 [fol. 62r: July 26, 1546, Francisco Cornejo is a regidor of Guadalajara];

?AGI, Contratación, 197, N.21, R.19 [1546, Pánuco, "Relación de los pesos de oro que el Dr. Castañeda enbio cobrado de Pánuco bienes de Francisco de Villegas y otros difuntos;" document is prepared in the ciudad de México; Antonio de Villadiego, vecino of Pánuco reported in 1546 in Mexico City, that Dr. Castañeda asked him to deliver gold, money and letters concerning the bienes difuntos in Pánuco that the Dr. had collected from doña Catalina de Mexía, widow of Francisco Barrón, now wife of Pedro de Trejo; this is the report Mexía gave him; in Santiago de los Valles, 20 Abril 1546, reported by Gonzalo Bernaldo; on 20 Abril Mexía is ordered to deliver whatever gold, money and letters she has regarding the bienes de difuntos of Francisco de Villegas, Juan Rodríguez, and anyone else; the juez de residencia informs Tello de Sandoval that there are many cases of bienes de difuntos from Santiago and the provincía; 28 May 1545 Tello de Sandoval demands that those handling these bienes report in person to him in Mexico City; 22 June 1545, Santistevan, del puerto de la provincía de Pánuco, it was publicly proclaimed that information regarding the bienes de difuntos will be collected and any frauds or negligence corrected; 1 Oct 1545, that Mexía, as wife of Francisco Barrón and vecina of Santistevan must produce info and pay 1000 pesos that belong to the estate of Francisco Villegas, in Compostela and Santisteban; Mexía reports she is doing the best  she can, since she is only the wife, and that her husband also dealt with Tonalá and Jalisco; all the items in a chest she delivers, the cofre es de flandes de dos palmos mas o menos; items seem to pertain to Villegas, Francisco Guillen, francés (whose albacea was Juan Rodríguez who is evidently dead), but also IOUs, wills and cartas de pago; gold de Jalisco; she reports also bienes from Francisco Guillén Francés; her late husband was the albacea for Francisco Guillen and delivers an inventory of Guillen's effects; has an inventory taken in Compostela; among her late husband's papers she has 2 conocimientos against Cristóbal de Oñate; un mandamiento de Francisco Vázquez Coronado contra Francisco de Villegas de contia de 200+ pesos de oro apedimiento de Francisco Pilo acesonario de Pedro de Sosa; carta de pago de Hernando Bermejo-7 tomines; conocimiento y carta de pago de Andrés de Salinas; una carta from Juan Pastor; mandamiento contra Melchior Díaz; there are 2 inventories of goods of Francisco de Villegas: one in Santistevan (more pages) and the other in Compostela; a poder from Diego Rodríguez to a Pero Martín; 2 conocimientos from Juan Pérez; carta de pago from Miguel Sánchez; conocimiento from Juan Gallego, escribano; carta de pago from Lope de Samaniego [therefore have to be before early 1540];  carta de pago from Juan Gallegos; conocimiento contra Francisco Cornejo  con un poder; 2 cartas de pago and a poder from an Alonso Martín; quenta de Francisco Cornejo; desembargo y mando de Cristóbal de Oñate; poder from Juan Rodríguez para el frances [probably meaning Guillen]; from Juan Rodríguez 2 petitions, a letter; another letter from Juan Ruiz; conocimiento from Pedro de Nájara; carta from Francisco Pilo; a conocimiento from Maese Miguel; an embargo by Francisco Vázquez de Coronado against the goods of Francisco de Villegas; the delivery was witnessed and signed by Juan de Gallegos in Santisteban; 11 Feb 1547 Mexía's husband makes a probanza in Mexico City regarding the bienes de difuntos of Francisco de Villegas, Francisco Guillén, francés and Juan Rodríguez, all deceased and her deceased 1st husband; Barrón lived in Santiago de los Valles; witnesses included: Francisco de Godoy, age-30+, native of Ubeda, vecino of Mexico City, saw Barrón collect the bienes of Guillén in Nueva Galicia, signed-no signature; February 1547 statement of Pedro de Trexo, current husband of Catalina Mexía"por razón de las costas e gastos e menoscabos de la hacienda del dicho Francisco Barrón que por su ausencia hubo y por su salario que de derecho le viene se retuvieron en ???? poder dozientos pesos de oro que corre para ayuda a lo dicho aunque es mucho mas lo que gasto e perdio en la dicha jornada [to travel from México to Nueva Galicia]" he presents an interrogatorio in which the first question asks if the witnesses are aware that Francisco Barrón collected bienes de difuntos in Nueva Galicia (Guadalajara y Compostela); he resided in Santiago de los Valles (Oxitipán) "que esta desta ciudad [México] ochenta leguas and "partió y fue con [los recaudos y escrituras] a la dicha Nueva Galicia;" he spent more than six months there collecting bienes; Francisco Guillén had gone to Nueva Galicia to collect bienes, but "estar la tierra alzada y de guerra...murió el dicho Francisco Guillén y dexo por su albacea a Francisco Barrón;"];

?Papeles de Nueva España, “Suma de visitas,” #826 [Xocotlán en Nueva Galicia, en Francisco Cornejo; esta estancia tiene 50 hombres casados y 43 viejos y muchachos. Da 10 indios de servicio en una heredad de cacao que esta a 3 leguas de la dicha estancia; dan alguna miel y algun maiz; es tierra caliente y pobre; esta 4 leguas de La Purificacion; no estan tasados. Chola-47 hombres casados y 40 mozos y viejos; siembran 1 fanega de maiz y un poco de algodon; dan 8 indios de servicio en la heredad del cacao; esta en un valle, es tierra fertil; esta 10 leguas de La Purificacion. Quemara-tiene 11 indios tributarios y 9 viejos y mozos; dan sal y pescado y algunas perlas quando las sacan; esta sobre la mar 1 legua de Chola y 11 leguas de La Purificacion; no estan tasados]

AGI, Justicia, 262, Pieza 2, “Visita hecha al virrey…” [fol.18r-28v: 1547, Guadalajara, Probanza of Mendoza, witness #269, 35 more or less, native of Salamanca, vecino of Guadalajara, 18 years in Nueva España and Nueva Galicia];

AGI, México, 1064, L.1\1\, “Informes” = Boyd-Bowman, Indice geobiográfico, II:7431 = Icaza, Diccionario, #470 & #1218 [fol.156v and 259v: vecino of Guadalajara; native of Salamanca; son of Álvaro Cornejo and Ana Maldonada; 20 years in Nueva España; with Nuño Guzmán in the conquest of Jalisco; went to Tierra Nueva; in the last pacification of Nueva Galicia; married and has 2 sons];

?Enciso Contreras, Zacatecas [p.326: A table of "Conquistadores, Mineros de Zacatecas, que poseyeron encomienda(s) en la Nueva Galicia o en la Nueva España (1528-1578)" shows a Francisco Cornejo with the following encomiendas: Xonacatlán, Chola y Quemara (Purificación, 1548-1572), Itzlán (Tala, 1548)];

Gerhard, North Frontier [p.119: Francisco Cornejo was encomendero of Xocotlán, Chola, and Quemara in the province of Purificación from at least 1548 until 1592 or so];  

1550-1560:

Melchior Pérez’s Petition for Preferment, 1551, in Flint & Flint, Documents, Document 32 [Francisco Cornejo, alcalde of Guadalajara];

?AGI, Patronato, 60, N.3, R.6 [1554, Guadalajara, Probanza of Juan de Ojeda, witness: Francisco Cornejo, vecino of Guadalajara, age-40 +/-, present with Ojeda in the battles in Guadalajara, signed (no signature on copy); Juan de Zaldivar, vecino of Guadalajara, age-36 +/-, he heard most things publicly, he knows how expensive it is because he himself is married but without children and it is very expensive, signed, no signature on copy];

?AGI, Patronato, 61, N.1, R.3 [Leonor Vaca, widow of Juan de Ojeda, contador in Galicia, was with Garay, Cristóbal Doli, Honduras, Nuño Guzmán; 1557, Compostela; image 46, Guadalajara, 1557, Francisco Cornejo, vecino, age-40 +/- years old, hearsay mostly, mentions Pedro de Castañeda with Juan de Oñate and Pedro de Plasencia with Ojeda when he was wounded in the barrancas of the Rio Grande after conquering Guadalajara];

1560-1570:

AGI, Guadalajara, 230, Libro 1 [fol.97r-97v: Feb. 1562, royal cedula to doña Francisca de Velasco, acknowledges receipt of her probanza regarding Cornejo's service in Cíbola, etc. (he is deceased before 1562, possibly as early as 1559)];

1580-1590:

?AHJ, Escribanos, No.1, Rodrigo Hernández Cordero, v.2 = Palomino y Cañedo, Protocolos de Rodrigo Hernández Cordero, #21 [p.75: Testamento de doña Francisca de Velasco, Guadalajara, 5 Aug. 1589 fol. 278r-281v; vecina, wife of Francisco Cornejo, deceased, daughter of Diego Temiño de Velasco and doña Francisca de Alcoyes (?), citizens of Sevilla; Her goods: las casas de mi marido que tengo en esta dicha ciudad de Guadalajara linde con casas de los herederos de Alonso Martín, difunto y las casas del relator Francisco de Çepeda calles en medio y por otra parte que sea mytad de la quadra dos solares que son y yo le vendi a Hernando Espino de Figueroa my yerno que estan pegados a estas dichas mis casas todo en una quadra, fol. 279r; yten declaro ansimismo por mis bienes 1350 pesos in principal de que me pagan creditos de ellos en la ciudad de Nuestra Señora de los Zacatecas los quales y me puso sobre ciertas casas Domingo de Mendiola y los papeles y cartas de censo los tiene Baltasar de Bañuelos mi hermano vecino of Zacatecas, fol. 279r; una esclava se llamada Ysabel, 60 years old, fol. 279r; una india esclava Chichimeca, 10 years of service, called Isabel; bought for her daughter doña Isabel de Temiño, fol. 279v; una india called Juana de Naçiera of the provincía of Santa Marta, was a slave of hers for many years, she gives her freedom, fol. 279v; una mulata called Leonor, 20 years old and her mulato son of 1 month called Pedro shall be given to her son Diego Cornejo, fol. 280r; her daughter, doña Gerónima de Velasco married to Hernando Espino de Figueroa, fol. 280r; Her son Diego, gets 2 blacks that were her husband's, called Antón (14) and Francisco (30) worth 700 pesos, fol. 280r; yten declaro que a Francisco Cornejo clerigo presbitero mi hijo y del dicho Francisco Cornejo mi marido no le he dado cos alguna por en quenta de su herençia, fol. 280v; Albaceas: Baltasar de Bañuelos, mi hermano, don Francisco Mynez de Sigura, chantre of the cathedral, sons Francisco and Diego Cornejo  fol. 280v; she signed]

Other Info:

?AGN, Instituciones Coloniales, GD61, Inquisición, Vol. 43, exp. 14 [case against Alonso Álvarez de Espinosa; witness: Cornejo vecino of Guadalajara, more than 40 years old, no date?];

?Calvo, Xalisco, la voz [p.87, 107n36: conquistador Francisco Cornejo, son-in-law of Baltasar de Bañuelos] [mistreatment of the Indians];

?Hillerkuss, Diccionario Biográfico, vol.1 [1)Cibola; pacifier in 1541, Mixton War; encomendero of Xochotlan, Chola, Quemara in the area of Purificacion; 1542, encomendero Ixtlan; total of 140 tribute payers; founding vecino of Guadalajara #4, Feb. 1542; married 1st with María Gutiérrez de Villacorta, widow of Gómez Gutiérrez, 2 children [Diego may have been married first to María Gutierrez de Villacorta (Hillerkuss does not say he married Villacorta, so that must go with Diego; wrong parents)]; 1543 or 1544 married Francisca, daughter of Diego Temiño Velasco and doña Francisca de Alcocer, therefore the family of Temiño Bañuelos, with 2 children by 1547 (Diego and Francisco); 1548 miner in Zacatecas as partner with Juan de Zaldívar and others; with Pedro de Ledesma, Bartolomé García and Pedro de Plasencia, all had a poder in 1549; wrote to the king in 1550 with Juan de Zaldívar and others; 1551 alcalde mayor in Guadalajara; 1553, daughter Gerónima; 1556, daughter Isabel de Temiño; died around 1559, p.301 (death date may be correct)];

Romero de Solís, Andariegos  [Diego Cornejo, his son and Francisca de Velasco's, reference is Hillerkuss; corregidor of Xilotlan, 1543-44, w/salary, reference Ruíz Medrano; 1557, vecino of Guadalajara; doesn't agree that he married María Gutiérrez de Villacorta first]

Relatives:

BPE, “Bienes de difuntos,” Folder C2-11-26, 1589 [Property of Juan Ovarez [Mines of Tinamachla, 7 Sept. 1589, In Compostela, 8 July 1587, witness to signature of Ovarez, Francisco Cornejo [son, fol.15r];

AHAG, Gobierno, Cabildo, General, 1590-1800 [Poder de Francisco Cornejo, July 28, 1588, Compostela; a Francisco Cornejo, beneficiado de Compostela, grants his power of attorney to his mother doña Francisca de Velasco [widow of our Francisco Cornejo]; the son can sign; a Pedro López, vecino of Compostela, is a witness; doña Francisca signs, quite well];

AHAG, Gobierno, Secretaría, Fábrica General de la Diocesis, 1584-1620, Caja 1 [1597-payment to Francisco Cornejo received by his mother doña Francisca de Velasco, son];

AHAG, Gobierno, Secretaría, Fábrica General de la Diocesis, 1584-1620, Caja 1 [Quentas of Diego Rubio, 1590, padre Francisco Cornejo, benefiçiado y vicario de Compostela; son];

AGI, Guadalajara, 47, N.17 [Guadalajara, 13 Oct. 1578, Francisco Cornejo, clerigo, son of Francisco Cornejo and doña Francisca de Velasco; Diego Cornejo the oldest child got the encomienda valued only at 100 pesos de tepuzque because of the death of many Indians, the clerigo has his mother and 2 young, unmarried sisters to support];

AGI, Guadalajara, 47, N.41 [Guadalajara, 8 Jan. 1586, his father served in the Mixtón War, where he received many wounds and at the point of death, was elected as alcalde ordinario and regidor of the city];

AGI, Guadalajara, 55 [no date, Xocotlán are mines served by Francisco Cornejo, cura, son of the conquistador]

?AHAG, Justicia, Capellanías, 1593-1620, Caja 1 [Founder: Isabel de Ortega; capellan:Francisco de Lujan, her nephew, Zacatecas, 1619, she is putting up the property that was next to the houses of Andrés de Lujan, her uncle, where he lives and his wife Juana de Saldaña, que ahora lo es de Hernando de Gamboa [her aunt remarried], a Francisco Cornejo is notario publico, 1628, fol.12v, descendant?];

?AHAG, Gobierno, Cofradias, 1577-1652, Caja 1 [Francisco Cornejo (son) in Zacatecas, 1618, notario, descendant?];

?APZ, Disciplinar, Procesos, Ecclesiasticos, Cofradías, Caja 165,  23 May 1595-21 June 1619, Exp. 2 [22 Dec. 1600 Francisco Cornejo and Gonzalo de Armenta, mayordomos of the cofradía, Santa Vera Cruz; witness-Alonso Pérez]