Cristóbal de Escobar

Brief Biography: 
Cristóbal de Escobar was born in 1518 in Aracena (Huelva) to Alonso Martín de Escobar and Mayor Gómez Castillo. He obtained his license to travel to New Spain with his wife Isabel Ortiz in February 1538 and came on the same ship as fellow expeditionaries Francisco Díaz and Alonso Álvarez. He was twenty-two years old when he went on the Expedition as an unassigned horseman. Upon his return from the Expedition, he took up several governmental posts in the provinces of Hidalgo, Puebla, Veracruz. During all those assignments he maintained his household in Mexico City where he died some time between October 1569 and March 1571. Cristóbal was successful in obtaining a coat-of-arms for his services to the crown.
Gender: 
Male
Date of Birth: 
1518
AGE-1540: 
22
Age Set: 
15-25
Birthplace
Country of Origin: 
Spain
Place of Birth (modern province/state/region): 
Huelva
Place of Birth (City/Town): 
Aracena
Date of Death: 
between 10/1569 and 5/1571
Died on the Expedition?: 
No
Last Known Location: 
Mexico City
Position on Expedition: 
Horseman
Injured on Expedition: 
Yes
Within Viceroy Mendoza's Sphere: 
No
Post Expedition Occupation: 
Corregidor
Justicia mayor
Residence After Expedition: 
Mexico City
Married: 
Yes
Name of Spouse: 
Isabel Ortiz
Name of Children: 
?Cristóbal de Escobar
Ability to sign name: 
Yes
Relatives: 
father: Alonso Martínde Escobar; mother: Mayor Gómez Castillo;
References-Documentary: 

1530-1540:

AGI, Indiferente General, 423, L.18 [fol.65r:permission to a Cristóbal de Escobar to transport one black slave to the Indies, December 30, 1537];

AGI, Pasajeros, L.2, E.4370=Boyd Bowman, Indice geobiográfico, II:9030 [Feb, 1538; Sevilla; father: Alonso Martínez, mother: Mayor Gómez de Escobar, wife: Isabel Ortiz (same time as all Soto’s people are shipping to La Florida; in group with three others from Sevilla and Triana)];  

Biblioteca del Escorial, Codíce &-II-7, Document #LXXVIII [no date, late 1540s] [settlers without Indians: Cristóbal de Escobar]

1540-1550:

1540, Feb: Muster in Flint & Flint, Documents, Document 12 [2 horses, chainmail vest, head armor, native arms]

 “Cristóbal de Escobar’s Proof of Service, 1543,” in Flint & Flint, Documents, Document 33 [witnesses: Lope de la Cadena, Juan de Zagala, Miguel de Entrambasaguas, Domingo Martín, Juan López, Alonso Álvarez, Hernando Gutiérrez [not participant], all participants in Coronado entrada] [came on same ship with Alonso Álvarez, 1537 or 1538, with his wife and household] [vecino of Ciudad de México] [tells of having saved Mexican Indians, blacks, and Spaniards by bringing supplies across "the unsettled area" from Corazones] [mentions building of bridge] [went without water for four days and without bread for 60 days] [went with Díaz on reconnaissance to Mar del Sur]; [asking for a coat of arms] [dressed in hides on return from expedition]; [Escobar took livestock to the advance guard of the expedition between Culiacán and Cíbola, which was suffering badly from hunger (60 Indian allies had died)] [Escobar took some of Domingo Martín’s livestock to relieve the expedition] [in Vázquez de Coronado's personal guard];

González-Leal, Relación Secreta  [p. 57-67: settlers without Indianas: includes a a Juan Gallego, followed by Cristóbal de Escobar];

AGI, Justicia, 267, N.3, “Proceso de Francisco Vázquez” [Escobar, vecino of México, was de oficio witness] [could sign his name-no signature on copy];

AGI, Justicia, 258, pieza 1, “Visita hecha al Virrey, 1544” [fol. 789v: a Cristóbal de Escobar was corregidor of the pueblo de Tabalilpa 12 July 1544 and renewed 14 July 1545 with a salary of 150 pesos/yr]

“APSM, Bautismos de Españoles, 1536-1746” [fol.145r: 9 Feb 1545, Cristóbal de Escobar and Isabel Ortíz padrinos];

AGI, Justicia, 271, Pieza 1, “Visita a Antonio de Turcios, escribano de cámara, 1546” [de parte witness is Cristóbal de Escobar, more than 25 years old, native of the villa of Aracena which is in the Sierra Morena, can sign his name, has known Turcios since about 1537];

Actas de Cabildo, Tomo V, 155 [October 13, 1546: a Cristóbal de Escobar becomes a vecino of México;

Actas de Cabildo, Tomo V, 181 [May 23, 1547, a Cristóbal de Escobar is granted a solar "en la calle que viene de Santo Domingo e va a la calzada que va a santiago];

AGI, Justicia, 1021, N. 2, Pieza 2, pieza 4 and pieza 6 [witness México, January 10, 1547; Escobar, native of Aracena, vecino of México, more than 25 years old; could sign his name (no signature on copy)]

AGI, México, 1064, L.1\1, “Informes” = Boyd-Bowman, Indice geobiográfico, II:5043 = Icaza, Diccionario, #640 = [fol.185r: vecino of México; native of Araçena; son of Alonso Martín de Escobar and Mayor Gómez Castillo; 9 years in Nueva España with his household and wife to serve the king in the wars and entradas; casa poblada; holds no office; has a farm to sustain himself; no specific mention of Vázquez de Coronado , except “entradas”];

1550-1560:

La Sociedad de Bibliófos Españoles, Nobiliario de Conquistadores [p.112-13: real cédula, July 20, 1551] [Escobar granted coat of arms; "una torre de plata en campo colorado, y por orla ocho estrellas de oro en campo azul; por timble un yelmo cerrado, por devisa un brazo armado con una espada desnuda en las manos, con sus trascoles y dependencias a follages de azul y oro];

AGI, México, 206, N.35 [Escobar, corregidor of Xicotepeque (seems correct geographically) or Xilotepeque from 1551] [witnesses: Luis Ramírez de Vargas- royal contador, Gerónimo de Mercado Sotomayor-alcalde mayor of Xilotepeque, Francisco Díaz, Hernán Páez, Luis de Navarrete, Antonio de Turcios; Tomas Blaque; Diego de Guevara; Diego de Madrid Avendaño] [asking for more profitable position] [Páez: Escobar on reconnaissance of valleys of Yuparo and Betuco, as well as mar del sur, fol. 11v] [1561, 23 years since his arrival in Nueva España, fol. 12v] [took one criado español on expedition] [in Coronado’s company] [was wounded more than once on the expedition] [had served as visitador as well as corregidor] [also served in regulating/moderating (moderar) Indian tribute, fol. 20v] [started getting offices in 1544] [Escobar came on same navío as Francisco Díaz] [arrived in 1538] [Turcios: Escobar one of principal citizens of Mexico City; not compensated for services on expedition-served at his own cost] [Navarrete, recorded Escobar’s residencia as corregidor-no charges: Escobar, 10 years as corregidor-merced particular de su magestad; granted 200 pesos as ayuda de costa by audiencia because of insufficient salary as corregidor, fol. 13r] [both información de parte and información de oficio] [signed-no signature on copy];

Hillerkuss, Diccionario Biográfico, vol.2  [1553, registered mines in Guajacatlan, Xocotlan, Cacalutla for various people, 2:76];

AGI, Contaduría, 663B [payments to corregidores y tenientes de corregidor: to Cristóbal de Escobar, as corregidor of the pueblo of Xicotepeque, 183 pesos (of 200 due him) for the last third of the last third of the first year and all of the second year of service ending in March 1553, and 50 pesos for the final third of his first year of service ending in June 1554, also paid 139 pesos for his third year of service ending in December 1556];

AGI, Contaduría, 663B [Payments en quitas: to Cristóbal de Escobar, corregidor of Xicotepeque, along with other officials, 47 pesos, for taken an account of the pueblo of Metateyuca in March 1554];

AGN, Instituciones Coloniales, GD72, Real Audiencia, Mercedes, vol.4, exp.s/n, 1555 [fols. 199r y v:August 1555, commission granted to Cristóbal de Escobar, corregidor of the pueblo of Xilotepeque, to travel to the pueblo of Guachinango to investigate robberies];

AGI, Contaduría, 664, 1558 [Payments to alcaldes mayores, corregidores y tenientes: Cristóbal de Escobar, corregidor of Xicutepeque, 139+ pesos, 6 Apr 1557-6 Apr 1558];

 AGI, Contaduría, 664, 1558 [Misc. grants: Cristóbal de Escobar, corregidor of Xicotepeque, 100 pesos, 5 Apr 1557-5 Apr 1558, to help with costs in doing his job];

AGI, Contaduría, 664, 1559 [Payments to alcaldes mayores, corregidores y tenientes: Cristóbal de Escobar, corregidor of Xicutepeque, 139+ pesos, 18 June 1558-18 Oct 1559];

AGI, Contaduría, 664, 1559 [Misc. payments: Cristóbal de Escobar, corregidor of Xicutepeque, 100 pesos, 21 Aug 1558-21 Aug 1559];

1560-1570:

AGI, México 206, N.6 [29 Jan 1560, Mexico City, witness: Cristóbal de Escobar, has known Ibarra for 22 years, 40+, Ibarra made a report regarding Escobar's corregimiento, was present many times as the almonedas of those tributes, signed (no signature on copy)];

AGI, México, 206, N.51 [1561: witness, Cristóbal de Escobar, vecino of México, corregidor of Xicotepeque, Justicia mayor in Guachinango, Paguatla, 40 years old] [Escobar has used Muñoz as scribe] [Escobar could sign his name (no signature on copy)]

Valderrama, Cartas, #28, p.214 [1564: Escobar is neither a conqueror nor poblador; being an official of the weaving of tafetas that they provide him a corregimiento]

AGI, Contaduría, 667A [diezmos de plata, 1563: in March Cristóbal de Escobar diezmo 84 marcos de plata]

Catálogo, Resumen e Índices [México, 30 junio 1565, Francisco Zamudio, teniente de alguacil mayor, vecino -ante Julián de Salazar, alcalde ordinario en México y ante el escribano yuso escrito- recibe en depósito, de manos de Juan Pérez de Rivera, mercader, vecino, en nombre de Cristóbal de Escobartambién vecino, 91 pesos de oro común, en 2 planchas de plata, la una mayor que la otra y ambas del diezmo por diezmar, de lo cual el escribano da fe. Plazo: a Cristóbal de Escobaro a Juan Pérez en su nombre, dentro de 3 meses contados a partir del día de la fecha, en reales de plata. El otorgante y el alcalde firmaron. Testigos: Francisco de Salazar y Rodrigo Becerro, escribanos públicos y vecinos];

Catálogo, Resumen e Índices, 4015 [16 Jan 1565, Mexico, Cristóbal de Escobar, vecino, otorga poder general a Juan Pérez de Ribera, vecino. Firmó. Testigos: Andrés Tello, Fabián de Valdés y Alonso de Cervantes, vecinos y estantes];

AGI, Patronato, 68, N.1, R.6 [1567, Sept, Mexico, Ana Gallegos, widow of Andrés de Rozas, first conqueror, 27 Jan 1568, witness: Cristóbal de Escobar, has known Ana and Andrés for 25 years (1543), more than 40 (<1527), signed (no signature on copy)];

AGI, México, 98 [29 Jan 1568, Mexico City, probanza of licenciado Agustin de Agurto, attorney of the audiencia, witness: Cristóbal de Escobar, vecino, had known Agustín, the son of Sancho López de Agurto, since he was a baby, 45+, signed (no signature on copy)];

AGI, Patronato, 69, R.3 [1569: Mexico, witness: Cristóbal de Escobar, vecino, more than 50 (<1519), it has been 32 years since witness came to New Spain (1537), signed (no signature on copy)];

1570-1580:

AGN, Instituciones Coloniales, GD23, Real Audiencia, Civil, vol.815, exp.48 [Mexico, 16 Dec 1572: Martín de Salinas in a lawsuit with Bartolomé Cano, Alonso Velásquez and Isabel Ortíz (Cristóbal's wife), the albaceas of Cristóbal de Escobar, over the accounting; 28 April 1572; Martín de Salinas, vecino of Mexico, says he had a company dealing in Spain with Cristóbal de Escobar and Pedro de Dueñas Sarmiento (vecino of Sevilla); Martín put in more than 2000 pesos; the company was in the hands of Alonso Velázquez Rodríguez and Bartolomé Cano (vecinos of Mexico); Martín is waiting for an accounting from the albaceas; 7 May 1572, Bartolomé Cano says he's been an albacea for the past year; Pedro de Dueñas Sarmiento is the señor of the navio Santa María de Begonia; Sarmiento says 7500 pesos (each worth 8 silver reales) were put into the company-2000 from Escobar, 2000 from Salinas and 3500 from himself; 380 cueros bacunos were sent to Sevilla to be sold;  sent 3145 pesos de tipuzque to sell in Sevilla; Sarmiento cannot send more than 3000-3500 ducats from Sevilla; he is sending merchandise and other things; the partners can send among themselves the gold, silver, cueros, grana mercaderias and other things; Memoria que se envio a Castilla por Cristóbal de Escobar y Martín de Salinas: (list of merchandise which they probably received) fardos de Ruan, fardos de Anzeo de Beaforte, camisas de hombre de Ruan, camisas de presilla, cuchillos carniceros anchos, bohemios de la culebrilla, tijeras de harriero, hilo Portugues, hilera, tocas de lino, espumillas ricas, bolantes, hilo blanco, azul y verde de Sevilla; hilo galludero, hilo laso para harriero, ovillos de vallesta de Valencia, cintas clavadas, guantes marquesotes picados de muger y hombre, sinaba, acafran, pimienta, clavo, canela, rapel del pelegrino, alvayalor de tetilla, cera blanca, mediales, gorras de Toledo, naypes, clavos hechizos para herrar, vayetas negras y moradas and verdes, piecas de fustanes negros, tafetan doblete negro, bocazanes colorados, piecas de olandilla abrigo, calcetas de Esguian, tijeras de despavilar, hilo blanco de guantes, quintales de carroz, hilo de Ruera, polvera de Alemana refinada,  quintales de alcalarrosa, barrieles quintales nos Sardina arenque, almendra and almendaron, and avellana and azeytuna goroal and mancinilla, azogue, azeytuna prieta, vinos de Jérez, telillas de seda, trombas de Paris, tijeras de barbero, cuchillos de ceremonias, gomas de agujas, alfileres, gruesas de dedales de sastre, deçinchas estradiotas de cavillo, jubones de olvida cruda, liencos, jubones de coleta, frenos xinetes, espuelas de la brida, pares de estrivos xinetes, venga entremedias cominos o otra semilla, margaritas menudas, hilo Portugues, geringas, frenos de la brida de Flandes, ropa venga en caxones en jutos; 29 May 1572, Bartolomé Cano ordered to pay Martín de Salinas; 1 Nov. 1572; an accounting by Sarmiento; Martín de Salinas vs. Isabel de Ortiz, Bartolomé Cano, Alonso Velásquez and Juan de Hinojosa, procurador del monesterio de Santo Domingo and heredero of Cristóbal's; 22 Sept. 1569; en la plaza publica de esta ciudad por voz de Juan Ortiz pregonero publico de esta ciudad Diego Pérez de Ribera vecino de esta ciudad en nombre de Cristóbal de Escobarvecino de esta ciudad puso en pregon e almoneda las mercaderias e cosas que de yuso yrian declarados por bienes del dicho Cristóbal de Escobare de su compania; 11 Oct. 1569; Cristóbal presents a petition; 10 Jan 1573, the alcalde Hernan Gutiérres Altamirano orders that a full review take place and 3 days later orders that Martin de Salinas be paid; Will: names his parents as-Alonso Martínez and Mayor Gómez del Castillo, vecinos of Aracena; wants his executors to buy a house so that the rent will pay for masses for his soul in Santo Domingo; owes the Indians of Metepeque and Gonzalo Hernández de Herrera su encomendero 200 fanegas of corn; owes Pedro Navarro, 40 gold pesos;  he collects in tribute 6 cargas and 1 Xiquipil de cacao; fecha in Mexico, 5 July 1569; 31 March 1573: decision-confirmed Altamirano's ruling; 24 April 1573:decision-confirm the Altamirano accounting; Salinas is owed 1014 pesos];

AGN, Instituciones Coloniales, GD23, Real Audiencia, Civil, vol.891, exp.5 [1573:los bienes de Cristóbal de Escobar; Mayor de Valdés en nombre de Catalina Herber contra los bienes de Cristóbal de Escobar y Bartolomé Cano como su albacea sobre 500 pesos; 31 Oct 1572, presents a clause in the will-"yo tengo una hermana e una sobrina en Aracena que de mis bienes se les ynvien a su riesgo 1000 pesos de oro comun los 500 pesos para la dicha mi hermana y si fuere muerta para doña Catalina de Herver mi sobrina y los 500 pesos Leonor Gómez mi sobrina muger de Cristóbal Merlo mayordomo de la villa de Aracena..."; his sister is María de Escobar, mother of Catalina; real audiencia in Mexico orders that the money be paid from his goods that are deposited with the depositario general]

Other Info:

Logic for age: if born in 1518 then the 1546 and 1547 statments of more than 25 fit (he would be 28 and 29); in 1560 more than 40 (he would be 42); in 1568 he says both more than 40 and more than 45 (he would be 50) which appears that he turned 50 that year; and in 1569 more than 50 (he would be 51)

Relatives:

?AGI, Justicia, 168 [fol. 881r: around 1551 a Francisco de Escobar (relative of Cristóbal?) is agent for don Luis de Quesada];

?AMS, XVI-1539-25, [Padrón de Cuantías, Aracena, 1539; January 9, 1539, señor Diego de Guzmán, jurado de Sevilla, en las casas de Álvaro ? Infante, estando presente Rodrigo Alonso de Escobar; a Juan Martín de Escobartiene una viña; the original document is badly damaged and available only in negative microfilm; many entries were not legible];

?Pérez-Embid Wamba, Aracena y su Sierra [p.65:  in 1486 an Alonso Martín de Escobar is head of family of lower-middle economic status in Aracena; 81: in 1512 a Rodrigo de Escobar was mayordomo in Aracena; 137-41: between 1556 and 1598 no Escobars served as members of the Aracena cabildo; 145: between 1565 and 1590 three Araceños named Escobar attended university in Sevilla; 146: a Gaspar de Escobar was a cura (and bachiller) between 1576 and 1586, Juan Ramírez Escobarin 1588, and Pedro de Escobar Girón in 1586];

?AGI, México, 22 [1590, Alcaldes Mayores: Alonso de Escobar, son of conquistador, Tiripitio];

?AGN, Instituciones Coloniales, GD110, Real Audiencia, Tierras, vol.2785, exp.14 (no.24), 1606 [fol.163: Escobar, Cristóbal de; request for un sitio de estancia de ganado menor y 2 caballerias de tierra on the outskirts of Xalpa and Queretaro; signed, son?]