Pero Hernández (1) (el Leal)

Brief Biography: 
There were two Pero Hernándezes on the Expedition. We have arbitrarily assigned the information associated with el Leal to Hernández (1) and placed him among the unassigned horsemen on the basis of the number of horses and type of equipment that individual had. (The Pero Hernández (2) we placed in Diego López's company). Pero probably was born sometime before 1513, making him one of the older expeditionaries. He was a native of Oliva in the modern province of Valencia and son of Martín Hernández and Mencía Rodríguez. He received his license for New Spain in February 1538, along with his brother Benito. He was badly wounded at Chiametla and may have had to remain behind while the Expedition continued north. He served in Peru where he earned the sobriquet, el leal and went on the Luna y Arellano exploration of La Florida. He returned to Spain around 1576 and died there in November 1582.
Gender: 
Male
Title (Y/N): 
No
Date of Birth: 
ca. 1513
AGE-1540: 
27
Age Set: 
25-35
Birthplace
Country of Origin: 
Spain
Place of Birth (modern province/state/region): 
Valencia
Place of Birth (City/Town): 
Oliva
Date of Death: 
11/1582 Spain
Died on the Expedition?: 
No
Last Known Location: 
Oliva, Spain
European Social Status: 
Commoner
Position on Expedition: 
Horseman
Injured on Expedition: 
Yes
Within Viceroy Mendoza's Sphere: 
No
Post Expedition Occupation: 
Corregidor
Encomendero
Residence After Expedition: 
Peru, La Florida, Spain
Married: 
Yes
Name of Spouse: 
Catalina Díaz Portillo
Name of Children: 
Martin Leal, natural son; other children
Ability to sign name: 
Yes
Relatives: 
Parents: Martín Hernández and Mencía Rodríguez; brother-Benito Hernández
References-Documentary: 

1530-1540:

AGI, Pasajeros, L.2, E.4389 [to Nueva España with his brother, Benito Hernández, son of Martín Hernández and Mencía Rodríguez, vecinos of Oliva, Feb. 1538]

?AGI, Justicia, 259, pieza 2 [visita a don Antonio de Mendoza] [copy of document from January 4, 1539 lists Pedro Hernández de a pie in Mendoza’s personal guard, fol. 51v-52r];

?AGI, Justicia, 1029, N.3 [Probanza hecha por Los Mineros de Nueva España, January 24, 1539; because of "la mucha costa e trabajo que se tenía en sacar el metal y en fundirlo e despues en finarlo" they say they can't afford to pay more than el diezmo; among the signers (total of 28) are don Luis de Castilla, a Pero Hernández , a Juan Pérez, Lope de Samaniego, Francisco Pilo, Juan Pérez de Vergara, and a Juan Hernández]

1540-1550:

1540, Feb: Muster in Flint & Flint, Documents, Document 12 [2 horses, sallet, elk hide jacket, native arms]

AGI, Patronato 108, R.5 [badly wounded along with Samaniego, may have had to turn back or stay in Culiacán]

AGI, Contaduría, 1784, N.4 [Peru, 1542, 1547, socorro de la gente que fue con Gasca; Descargo: delivery to-Juan Rodríguez, Pero Hernández, and others];

Cartas de Indias, Tomo III [p.545: Carta XCII, Licenciado Polo de Ondegardo to Licenciado Pedro de la Gasca, Potosí, Peru, 9 Oct. 1549; wrote a letter to Gasca along with Pero Fernández, el leal, regarding bienes de los difuntos];

?AGI, Justicia, 258, Pieza 1 [fol. 789v: Guamelula: 18 Sept. 1542, corregidor, Pero Hernández, 200 peso salary; renewed 19 Sept. 1543]

?AGI, Contratación, 197, N.21, R.7 [Ciudad Real, Chiapa, Guacaqualco, 1543, Diego Delgado, deceased; fray Marcos is owed 1 ducat; Juan de Orduña owes the estate 5 pesos y 5 tomines; Rodrigo Sánchez owes 5 tomines, 6 granos; Cristóbal Gutiérrez, owes 4 tomines; Pero Hernández  purchased at auction 2 pares de manteles for 1 pesos, 2 tomines; Cristóbal Gutiérrez purchased una caxa con su cerradura for 1 peso, 2 tomines, 6 granos];

?AGI, Justicia, 270, Pieza 2 [visita a los alcaldes de México Gerónimo de Medina y Gonzalo López; 1542 witness is a Pero Hernández, vecino de México, was in the plaza near the audiencia, could sign his name-(no signature on copy); witnessed events at the jail];

?Actas de Cabildo, Tomo IV, p.300 [August 29, 1542: a Pedro Fernández, tailor, petitions for a solar "en la calle que va de la casa del factor a las atarazanas sobre la mano derecha"]

?AGI, Justicia, 270, Pieza 1 [witness is Pero Hernández, in 1544, in México, can sign his name];

?APSM, “Bautismos de Españoles, 1536-1746”  [fol.153r: 1 July 1545 Pero Hernández padrino for daughter of Damián García and Catalina Sánchez];

?APSM, “Bautismos de Españoles, 1536-1746” [fol.150r: 10 May 1545 , Rodrigo Simón and his wife baptize Diego, padrino, Pedro Hernández and his wife]

?AGI, Contratación, 197, N.21, R.18 [8 May 1545, Ciudad Real, Lope Hernández, native of Elves, deceased; report from Gonzalo Rodríguez de Villafuerte, vecino of Guacachalco, Tabasco and Chiapas; 12 Abril 1542, witnesses:  Sancho de Garanon, Gaspar Sánchez, Juan Bautista, Diego Vázquez, Sebastian Rodríguez, Juan de la Res, Juan de Carabajal; 26 March 1545, auction, purchaser: Pedro Hernández, a petaca, 2 panos]

?Porras Muñoz, Personas y Lugares [p.67: seems to have been the first leather embosser in Nueva España, became vecino June 30, 1542]

1550-1560:

AGN, Instituciones Coloniales, GD72, Real Audiencia, Mercedes, vol.3, exp.48bis, 1550 [fols. 22v – 24r: List of payments of ayuda to 95 persons who participated in the armada to Perú; the list includes: seven Genoese and numerous other foreigners (Flemings, Germans, Italians); Pedro Hernández (30 pesos de minas); a Juan Pérez (25 pesos); a Juan Fernández, artillero (40 pesos); Juan Fernández, ladrillero, piloto (80 pesos); an Alonso González (25 pesos); a Juan Gallego (25 pesos); a Juan Pérez de Navarra (25 pesos); a Diego Sánchez, tonelero (25 pesos)];

AGI, Patronato, 123, R.8 [1556- Captain Martín de Olmos sobre que se le acreciente por otra vida mas el repartimiento que tiene de indias, Cuzco, witness: Pero Hernández el Leal, 43+, describing his exploits and those of Martín, signed (no signature on copy) fol. 47r=\102];

1560-1570:

Luna Papers, Priestley, ed. [2:13: 1560, a Pedro Hernández in Florida with Luna (signed?); 1:247: in company of Cristóbal Arellano];

AGI, Justicia, 1013, N.2, R.1 [1561: Tristán de Luna y Arellano, vecino de la ciudad de Oaxaca, con don Luis de Velasco, Virrey de Nueva España, sobre haberle este privado injustamente de cierto encargo que se le había dado en la jornada de la Florida: fols. 112v-113v, la copia de la gente que hay sana para poder yr; includes a Juan Muñoz de Sayas, a Luis Hernández, an Antón Martín, a Pero Hernández , a Pedro de Écija, an Alonso González, a Francisco Rodríguez, a Graviel López, an Alonso Martín, a Francisco Martín, the wife of Juan Xaramillo, an Azebedo, and a Domingo Alonso];

AGI, Contratación, 471, N.2, R.2, exp. 2 [February 1562, account given by Alonso Velásquez Rodríguez, el tesorero, of the goods of those who died on the expedition to La Florida; fol. 1v: inventario de Juan Martín, tambor: 20 panes de jabón, 12 madexas de hillera and 2 de bolillos, un poco de hiso negro, un par de alpargates, 4 sartas de quetas, 1 caquyma con dos cabestros, 1 martillo, un poco de queso, 1 cerradura, 4 mecapales, 2 arponeras de Cord???, 1 almohada, 2 espuelas, 1 almaraz, 1 talabarte, 1 zapato y nyquetas, 2 calcedores and 1 escobilla, 2 pergamynos para tambor, 3 camysas, 2 jubones de tafetan, 1 jubón de lienzo, 1 gorra de terciopelo, 1 madalena, 1 gorra de paño viejo, 1 chamarín de serga, un par de medias calzas negras, unas calças pardas, otras calças de terciopelo, 1 cuera, 1 chamara vieja, unos çarrahuales [zarraguelles] de sayal 1 pañuelo de mesa, un par de zapatos, 1 pedazo de manta, 1 espada, 1 vayna de cuchillos, 1 almohada, 1 escaupil, 1 manta frezada, 1 capote, 1 bolsa con 10 tomines; fols. 2v-4v: December 1559, Puerto de Santa María, provincia de La Florida, Miguel Martín, escribano, conducts an almoneda of Juan Martín’s (tambor) inventoried goods: zarraguelles sold to a Domingo de Cortaça, criado del tesorero; the pedazo de manta was bought by Luis Hidalgo, who also bought nuevas medias calzas negras; the sayo pardo by Miguel Martínez; unas calzas viejas were bought by a Juan Arias, marinero; calzas pardas bought by Domingo Arteaga, marinero, also said to be a criado of the tesorero, who also bought gorras and a camisa; imagen de madalena bought by a Pero Hernández, a Gaspar Hernández, marinero, bought a chamapeta; a Martín Hernández, contramaestre de la barca, bought a jubón and some zapatos; a Pacheco, alguazil, bought another jubón; an Antonio Rodríguez, maestre de la barca, bought another jubón; a Juan Gómez, pregonero del puerto de Santa María, bought a coleto, as well as alpargates; a Luis Hernández de la compañia de su señoría, purchased a quantity of things; a Gaspar Rodríguez bought the capote; an indio soldado bought the espada; Fol. 4v: Jorge Cerón Sayavedra, maestre de campo y justicia mayor de la Florida]

AGI, Patronato, 108, R.5 [probanza-made in Los Reyes (Lima), Peru, 24 April 1562, came to Nueva España 24 years ago (1538) to go on the Vázquez de Coronadooro expedition, badly wounded between Cuelica and Salesco, where they killed Samaniego, (fol.43v=\90) maese de canpo por lo qual y por aya causa descubrio la florida la qual puebla agora don Tristán de arellano de lo qual se le siguio a su majestadmuy gran provecho por el dicho descubrimiento; after Cibola went to Peru to help Blasco Núñez Vela and defeat the tyrant Gonzalo Pizarro, for which he received "el Leal", was sent to Panama to spy on Gonzalo Pizarro; went with Juan Alonso Palomino to the Valle de Xauxadon where they fought Pizarro, then in the company of Capitan Francisco Hernández, owned blacks, captured by rebels he was to be garroted and taken by Captain Robles to a house, where he begged for his life and was pardoned - a miracle; battle of Pucara; Vela awarded him encomienda; witness: Cristóbal Velazquez; morador de esta ciudad de los Reyes, knows Pedro for about 24 years in these parts, knows he went on the jornada and served well as a soldier, comyeron e devieron juntos, 50 +/-, is not his relative, knows he was wounded on the Rio Chiametla, knows he went to the discovery of La Florida because he was there, signed his name ((no signature)), only 2 questions he answered (fol. 70v=\145); witness-Miguel de Entrambasaguas, 40+, knows Pedro was on the expedition and was wounded, signed his name (no signature), only 2 questions he answered];

AGI, Patronato, 109, R.2 [1562, Cristóbal de Mendoza sobre que se le gratifiquen sus servicios y se le pague lo corrido de cierta merced que se le hizo, Peru, his uncle is Capitan Lope de Mendoza, 6th witness:  Pero Hernández el Leal, 45, signed (no signature on copy)]

AGI, Escribanía de la Cámara, 952 [fol.362:3 Feb. 1564; a Pero Hernández el leal; fol.426: 14 March 1566, Pedro Fernández]

?AHZ, Reservado, Ayuntamiento, Reales Cédulas y provisiones, "Libro primero de reales cédulas y provisiones de la ciudad de Zacatecas" [fol. 165r, Mexico City, 1 March 1566, Pedro Hernández and Hernan García, witnesses to a cédula]

1580-1590:

AGI, Patronato, 108, R.5 Nov 1582 (deceased), Spain [1585, 30 Jan, Martín Leal, son of Pero Hernández el Leal, vecino of Oliva del ducado de Feria, services his father did in Peru, Pero died in Oliva 2 years before, Martín was made legitimate, Pero had no legitimate children, earned the named "el Leal" from the Peru troubles, had a wife and children, served in the jornada de Portugal as alferez, Martín as father and administrator for Pero Hernández Leal, his son and the widow wife of Pero Hernández el Leal, Catalina Díaz Portillo; resided in Peru 29 years; his will left 1/2 to his wife and the other half to Martín and heir named was Pero Hernández Leal, his grandson; Martín's mother was a mujer soltera; witness: Gómez Suarez de Figueroa, vecino of Oliva, could sign, 48; Pero, el Leal, has a writing desk and can write; refers to Gómez as "mi senor"; probanza, see above];

Other Info:

Cartas de Indias, Tomo IV [758: Notes by? Justo Zaragosa (Dir. of public instruction), Vicente Barrantes, Francisco González de Vera, Marcos Jiménez de la Espada in the 1877 edition; Pero Hernández el Leal; born in Oliva, Valencia; criado of conde of Feria; later went to Peru at the time of the Gonzalo Pizarro revolt; went to Cuzco and was the guest of Garcilosa de la Vega who honored him like a brother; dealt as the rep. in Tunu for the Real Hacienda and the coca; assisted in the fight against Girón; had a son Martín Leal who went to Spain and served the conde de Feria and the marques de Villanueva;

Hillerkuss, Diccionario Biográfico [1)Cibola; signed Pero Hernández el Leal; born before 1517 in Oliva, Valencia; criado of conde de Feria; came to Nueva España 1538; wounded at Chiametla when Samaniego was killed; later went to Peru; fought on royalist side; probanza in 1562, as householder in Cuzco; returned to Spain; established again in Oliva, Valencia; wife-Catalina Díaz Portillo, illiterate, born 1524, probably married her in Spain on his return; she was daughter of Ruy González Portillo and Isabel Díaz; Pedro served in the war in Portugal with his son, Martín Leal, natural son; 1565, Aranjuez, king authorized the govt of Peru to pay him 2000 pesos/yr; 1573 still not received; will in Oliva, July 1582; codicil in Nov. 1582; interred in Nuestra Señora de Gracia; freed 2 black slaves; estate w/sheep and goats; Martín Leal made legit in 1565, married Catalina Díaz, niece of Catalina Díaz Portillo; Busto Duthurburu, 1987, 242s; Cartas de Indias, 1981, Tomo IV, 758; Motané Martí, 87, 138, 140s, p.3:189-194];

Busto D., Diccionario Histórico Biográfico [p.241-2: wounded at Chiametla when Samaniego was killed, between Cuelica and Salesco; later went to Peru with virrey Núñez Vela in Tumbes; accompanied Juan Velasquez Vela Núñez in the advance towards Motupe all the way to Quito; battle of Iñaquito; tried to flee and caught in Lima and was banished to Panama; returned with Presidente Gasca and in the company of Juan Alonso Palomino; fought in the battle of Jaquijahuana with Giron; did not want to stay with Giron when he revolted; lancero de a caballo with mariscal Alonso de Alvarado; sentenced to hang but begged Giron, was pardoned; verbally abused, calling him a sastre; April 1562 made a probanza; returned to Spain, to the villa of Oliva, in the ducado of Feria; married Catalina Díaz Portillo, daughter of Ruy González Portillo and Isabel Díaz; Pedro served in the war in Portugal with his son, Martín Leal, natural son; 1565, Aranjuez, king authorized the govt of Peru to pay him 2000 pesos/yr; 1573 still not received; will in Oliva, 20 July 1582 and codocil, Nov. 4th; buried in the Nuestra Señora de la Gracia and freed 2 black slaves; Martín was legitimized in Toledo, 20 Nov. 1565 and married the niece of his father's wife];

Piferrer, Nobiliario, 3:94, #1265 [family name from Córdoba; went to Galicia; el origen de esta casa y apellido se cree muy ciertamenta que es tomado del rey don Fernando, y derivado de este nombre en Fernández and alterado despues en Hernández; escudo of sinople and a gold castle de cuyas almenas sale un brazo armado con espada and 2 lions del mismo metal empinantes al castillo, bordura de gules and 8 gold stars]