Cristóbal de Mayorga

Brief Biography: 
Cristóbal de Mayorga was born in 1512 in Benavente (Zamora province) to Juan de Mayorga and Beatriz Coco. He took part in the Guzmán pacification of Nueva Galicia in 1529 and was granted an encomienda in Chiametla for his service. He was present at the 1540 muster as a horseman, right alongside his relatives Pedro de Benavídes and Juan Benavídes. Upon the return of the Expedition, Cristóbal took up residence in Mexico City, keeping his encomienda and becoming a mine owner.
Gender: 
Male
Date of Birth: 
1512
AGE-1540: 
28
Age Set: 
25-35
Birthplace
Country of Origin: 
Spain
Place of Birth (modern province/state/region): 
Zamora
Place of Birth (City/Town): 
Benavente
Died on the Expedition?: 
No
Last Known Location: 
Mexico City
European Social Status: 
Hidalgo
Position on Expedition: 
Horseman
Within Viceroy Mendoza's Sphere: 
Yes
Pre-Expedition Occupation: 
Encomendero
Post Expedition Occupation: 
Miner
Encomendero
Residence After Expedition: 
Mexico City
Married: 
Yes
Name of Spouse: 
Elena Bonilla
Ability to sign name: 
Yes
Relatives: 
related to Pedro & Juan de Benavídes;father:Juan de Mayorga; mother:Beatriz Coco; fiscal Cristóbal Benavente
References-Documentary: 

pre-1530:

Garmendia Leal, Fundadores [p.102: soldados de Nuño de Guzmán, 1529, listed among the jinetes y peones]

1530-1540:

AGI, Justicia, 258, pieza 1, “Relación de los salarios” [fol. 800r; fol. 823v:a Cristóval de mayorga...Lx pesos]   

1540-1550:  

1540, Feb: Muster in Flint & Flint, Documents, Document 12 [2 horses, elk hide jacket, native arms]

González-Leal, Relación Secreta  [p. 81-82: Despues de sacado este memorial han dad las personas siguientes: Cristóbal de Mayorga];

AGI, Justicia, 258, pieza 1, “Relación de los salarios” [a Cristóbal de mayorga...May 23, 1545...cL pesos];

AGI, México, 1064, L.1\1, “Informes” [fol.280v] =  Boyd-Bowman, Indice geobiográfico, II:12602 [to México, 1529] [with Guzmán, 1530]  = Icaza, Diccionario, II:1377 [encomendero at Espiritu Santo; low income stimulated joining expedition] [still in debt, 1547] = [native of Benavente; son of Juan de Mayorga and Beatriz Coco; is hijodalgo; his father and grandfather served the crown, especially in Pamplona at their own cost; 8 years in these places; pacification of Los Valles; with Guzmán in Nueva Galicia until Compostela was settled; in the reconnaissance of the coast of the Mar del Sur and the poblador of the Villa of Espirtu Santo in Chiametla, where he was given encomienda; went to Cíbola where he spent a large sum of gold pesos; asks for a grant as a conquistador and poblador];

AGI, Justicia, 260, Pieza 4 [Charges against Cristóbal de Benavente, fiscal, 1546 and 1547, fol.146r: Witness, native of the Villa de Benavente in Castilla, 35 years old, is related to the fiscal in the 3rd degree (signature scanned)];

1550-1560:

AGI, Justicia, 1021, N.2, Pieza 2, “Relación sacada de la probanza, 1551” [Cristóbal de Mayorga: some pueblos gave clothing willingly, but it was taken from others; they were told it was only out of necessity; tells of Indians being executed as traitors after the first seige] [he went to get clothing] [Cárdenas with 40 or 50 horsemen to another pueblo 5 leagues distant from the general's army] and pieza 6 probanza del fiscal Villalobos [México, January 10, 1547] [Cristóbal de Mayorga, natural de Benavente, more than 25 years old] [Mayorga was in the group that went with López de Cárdenas to collect clothing, one piece per household] [una noche alzaron todos los pueblos comarcanos] [went with López de Cárdenas to verify the theft and killing of horses] [went with López to another pueblo 5 leagues from where the general was to deliver the requerimiento (Mayorga must have been in López’s company)] [could sign his name (no signature on copy)];

Catálogo, Resumen e Índices [Mexico 12 May 1559, Antonio de Villafranca, confitero, vecino, otorga poder general a Juan Bote de Hinojosa, procurador de causas, estante. Firmó. Testigos: Cristóbal de Mayorga, Rodrigo Becerro, escribano de Su Majestad, y Francisco de Vargas, vecinos]

1560-1570:

AGI, Patronato, 205, R.1 \ 2 [1566 witness for Luis Cortés; Elena de Bonilla, viuda muger of Cristóbal de Mayorga, who was a vecino of Mexico City]

?AGI, Contaduría, 667A [diezmos de plata, 1562: a Fulano de Mayorga diezmo 18 marcos de plata]

Other Info: AGI, México, 204, N.33 [Juan Paniagua: witness for Pedro de Benavides, Feb. 14, 1551, Mexico City, 38 years old, estante in Mexico City, went on Expedition, knew a relative of Pedro called something or other Mayorga (there is a town called Mayorga)]

Relatives?: ?AGI, Justicia, 1156, N.1, R.2 [1565, pleito fiscal, Francisco de Mayorga]; ?Socolow, Women of Colonial Latin America [p.110, a generous patron of the Archicofradía del Santísimo Sacramento of Mexico City between 1618-1633 was Elvira de Mayorga]; A Diego de Mayorga is secretary for the inquisiciónin 1530s];

?AHJO, Teposcolula, Criminal, 1, exp.55, 1576 [Case against Alonso de Mayorga, tesorero, Questlavaca]