Lope de Samaniego

Brief Biography: 
Lope de Samaniego was a native of Segovia (Segovia province). He came to New Spain around 1522. Lope at some point returned to Spain and came back to New Spain with Luis Ponce de León, who came to take the residencia of Cortés, in 1526. He became a member of Mexico City's cabildo and participated in Guzmán's 1531 conquest into Nueva Galicia. Lope was present at the 1540 muster and held the high position of maestre de campo. When the Expedition reached Chiametla, Lope was attacked by Natives, shot in the eye with an arrow, and died. He may have been specifically attacked as retaliation by Natives of the area for having participated in Guzmán's slaving raids.
Title: 
caballero
Gender: 
Male
Title (Y/N): 
Yes
Date of Birth: 
ca. 1507
AGE-1540: 
33
Age Set: 
25-35
Birthplace
Country of Origin: 
Spain
Place of Birth (modern province/state/region): 
Segovia
Place of Birth (City/Town): 
Segovia
Date of Death: 
1540
Death Details Known?: 
Yes
Died on the Expedition?: 
Yes
Last Known Location: 
Chiametla, Mexico
European Social Status: 
Caballero
Position on Expedition: 
Maestre de campo
Within Viceroy Mendoza's Sphere: 
Yes
Pre-Expedition Occupation: 
Alcaide
Corregidor
Married: 
Yes
Name of Spouse: 
Isabel Fálces
Name of Children: 
García de Samaniego
Ability to sign name: 
Yes
References-Documentary: 

pre-1530:

AGI, Indiferente General, 420, L.10 [fol.124r: October 22, 1525 [nombramiento de Lope de Samaniego...de aqui en adelante le libren 30,000 maravedíes anuales] [cada un año treynta myll maravedies];

Porras Muñoz, El Gobierno de Mexico City [p.81, 9 Dec. 1528, regidor; p.147, Jan. 22, 1532, the cabildo wanted to examine his provision as alcaide to see if it had expired and Samaniego had been outside of the city for a long time; p.151, he attended his last cabildo meeting on Nov. 18, 1539; p.145: Dec. 9, 1528 [alcaide de las atarazanas, presented royal title to be regidor];

Mier y Terán Rocha, La primera traza [II:577: Lope de Samaniego, alcaide de las atarazanas, received the grant from the cabildo de México of a huerta in January 1529 outside the traza on the calzada de Chapultepec]

Fernández de Oviedo, Historia General y Natural de las Indias [IV:272: Samaniego is a native of Segovia];

López-Portillo y Weber, La Conquista de La Nueva Galicia  [captain de emergencia: Lope de Samaniego, alcaide de las Atarazanas];

AGI, Patronato, 17, R.24 [Residencia segunda a Hernán Cortés, s/f; Relación de los cargos que resultaron en una pesquisa secreta que se hizo en Nueva España por Nuño de Guzmán, Juan Ortiz de Matienzo y el licenciado Delgadillo; Cargo 6: sobre la muerte que Cortés dio a Luis Ponce de León as a result of eating to excess; witnesses to this event are to be Francisco de Orduña and Lope de Samaniego; Samaniego also testifies (along with Gonzalo de Salazar and Alonso de Estrada) about Cortés holding Michoacán for a long while without sharing it out in encomiendas (Cargo 8); Lope de Samaniego is alcaide of the atarazanas de México; Samaniego had traveled to Spain and Ponce de León returned with him and saw him healthy at Guaxocingo; he supposedly warned Ponce de León not to eat the requesón and manjar; after that he had severe pains in his chest and stomach]

Razo Zaragoza, 4 Cronicas de la Conquista de Nueva Galicia [#V, p.174: alcaide and regidor of Mexico];

Razo Zaragoza, 4 Cronicas de la Conquista de Nueva Galicia [#II, p.71: alcalde in Chiametla];

1530-1540:

AGI, México, 1088, L.1Bis [fol.113r-113v: August 31, 1531 [cédula, Lope de Samaniego, alcaide de las atarazanas de esa tierra, estuviere ausente...en la conquista de los teules chichimecas ahora nombrada Galicia de la Nueva España...le libren y paguen el salario como si estuviese presente] [le mandaron que la fuese a conquistar juntamente con nuño de Guzmán];

AGI, México, 203, N.13 [1531, informaciones, Lope de Samaniego, alcaide de las atarazanas de México] [Alonso Rodríguez de Paradinas, teniente de Lope de Samaniego] [has held the office of alcaide more than 5 years] [Alonso de Estrada sent Samaniego to España con ciertas cosas para consultar las con su magestad e con los del su consejo; took him 2 years] [he returned in the company of the oidores (Matienzo, Delgadillo, Maldonado, and Parada)] [while away he left as lieutenants Melchior de Quirós (who died) and Pedro Rodríguez] [Guzmán left with muchos caballeros e principales de esta ciudad, among whom was Samaniego] [during the 15 months in Nueva Galicia Samaniego served as captain; went muy aderezado de caballos e armas e negros e atavios de su persona] [Juan de Cuevas (escribano de minas), Pedro de Sámano (vecino and regidor), Juan de Castañeda, Juan de Vergara, Juan de Contreras, Per Almyldes Cherino (veedor), Francisco Verdugo (vecino) testify on behalf of Samaniego]; Epistolario de Nueva España, vol.2, #107bis [witness, May 24, 1532, regarding those who spoke disrespectfully about the Audiencia, signed];

AGI, Indiferente General, 422, L.16 [fol.38v: September 13, 1533 [cédula, licencia a Lope de Samaniego para pasar a Indias un esclavo y una esclava]

AGI, Justicia, 190, N.2 [El fiscal contra Lope de Samaniego, alcaide de las atarazanas de México y su forteleza, sobre embargo de sus esclavos, June 1535; Samaniego himself testifies to having been sent 14 Indian slaves two months before from Nueva Galicia by a Santiago Aguirre, 9 men and 5 women; Samaniego then sold them to a merchant; he also talks about 62 slaves having been brought to him in the ciudad de México by Juan de Oñate 25-30 days before; and another 21 slaves brought to him by Diego Vázquez, vecino de Guadalajara; and the same man sent him another 35 slaves; they had all been branded; "los dichos esclavos con los demas han venido a nuestro poder fueron habidos de buena guerra hecha con autoridad de vuestra magestad"; interrogatorio on behalf of Lope de Samaniego, Juan del Camino, and Francisco Lombardo; mentions about 100 branded slaves brought from Nueva Galicia by Sámano and Lombardo; the slaves are from the pueblos of Maxcala and Apozol, that resisted Nuño de Guzmán's conquest and have risen up many times; a witness is Martín Benítez, vecino de Compostela, more than 30 years old, has known Samaniego, Guzmán, and Camino for about 4 years, can signed, but no signature; he is followed immediately by Francisco de Godoy, vecino de Compostela, 27 or 28 years old, has known Samaniego, Guzmán, and Camino for 6 or 7 years, can sign, but no signature, he is followed immediately by Melchior Díez [Díaz later in the signature slot] vecino de Compostela, about 29 years old, has known Samaniego, Guzmán, and Camino for about 8 years, can sign, but no signature; after one unrelated witness (a Juan de Castañeda) there is a Lázaro Ginovés, vecino de Compostela, about 34 years old, does not know any of the principals, does not know how to sign; Cristóbal de Oñate is a witness, veedor de Nueva Galicia, about 30 years old; another interrogatorio on behalf of Lope de Samaniego, Juan del Camino, and Francisco Lombardo for witnesses in Guadalajara, August 1535; a witness is a Martín? de Castañeda, vecino de Guadalajara, about 30 years old, has known Samaniego, Guzmán, and Camino for 5 or 6 years, does not know how to sign; another interrogatorio in Purificación, September 1535, dealing with "el muy noble señor" Juan Fernández de Híjar; a witness is a Juan Gallego, alcalde ordinario de Purificación, testifies that Fernández had come to settle Purificación four years earlier, can sign, but no signature; another witness is a Martín de Refarache?, regidor de Purificación;  included is a copy of a July 6, 1534 petition from the justicia e regidores of Compostela, Gaspar Brizeño, Francisco de Godoy, Juan de Cepeda, Salvador Martel, Juan de Samaniego, Juan Durán, Martín Benítez, Rodrigo Ximón, Juan Pascual, Bartolomé Pérez, Cristóbal Martín de Barzagán, Alonso Valiente, [Juan de Mendoza,] Pedro Veneciano, e todos los mas vecinos desta ciudad [de Compostela], that they be allowed to seek remedy for their distressed situation "a causa que no servir los indios"; the following day Pedro Ruíz de Haro, escribano público y del consejo, prepares a request to Guzmán from the procurador Juan Sánchez Belmonte in response to the petition; "no servir la tierra por no ser castigados los indios conforme a los delitos que han hecho"; February 1, 1535, the regidores and justicia of Compostela renew their petition to Guzmán; they are Juan de Villalba, Álvaro de Bracamonte, Luis Salcedo, Alonso de Castañeda, Pedro de Beloa, Francisco de Godoy, and Juan de Samaniego; many vecinos have now left; January 30, 1535, Guzmán confirms the right of the vecinos to take slaves during war against those Indians who have "risen up"; his decision is ordered proclaimed "por voz de Pero Martín, pregonero público" on Tuesday, February 2, 1535; interrogatorio of 62 questions on behalf of Guzmán; refers to having sent Juan de Villalba, Alonso de Castañeda, Gaspar Brizeño, Alonso González, and other vecinos of Compostela to the Valles de Banderas and "todos los repartiminetos que estan en las sierras" "para castigar y pacificar otra vez e tornaron a venir de paz y servir;" refers to the villa of Espíritu Santo having been abandoned and the villa of San Miguel about to be abandoned; this interrogatorio contains a lot of detail about specific pueblos and Indian leaders; Guzmán says that he "podería hacer más de tres mil esclavos y no los quiso hacer sino en poca cantidad"; witnesses to the interrogatorio in september 1535: Francisco de Villegas; Juan de Villalba; Francisco de Godoy, alguacil mayor y regidor de Compostela, 27 or 28 years old; says he participated in the conquest of Nueva Galicia and many of the subsequent attempts to "restore peace;" he himself has Indians (in encomienda) who have never provided anything to him (fot gold or silver or even corn); he has seen "muestras de plata y de oro" from San Miguel, can sign, but no signature; Sebastián Pérez; Cristóbal Maldonado, vecino of Compostela, about 21 years old, he is clearly a fairly recent arrival and has known Guzmán for only two years, can sign, but no signature; Miguel Sánchez, vecino de Compostela, about 30 years old, has known Guzmán for about 6 years and participated in the conquest of Nueva Galicia; Rodrigo Ximón, vecino de Compostela, about 30 years old, has known Guzmán since settlement of Nueva Galicia, he went many times to the valles de Banderas in attempts to bring the natives to peace, he has seen that there are very good mines at San Miguel; Martín Benítez, vecino de Compostela, more than 30 years old, has known Guzmán for about 4 years, he participated in the conquista of Nueva Galicia and of the valles de Banderas, he has seen the mines in San Miguel. he participated in many of the atttempts to "restore peace," can sign, but no signature; Pero Hortigón; Gaspar Brizeño; Luis Salado; Álvaro de Bracamonte; Pero Ruíz de Haro, vecino de Compostela, about 23 years old, has known Guzmán for 4 or 5 years, can sign, but no signature; Alonso de Castañeda, says that Espíritu Santo was abandoned many days before; Pedro de Veloa; Juan Sánchez Belmonte, Hernando de Escalante; Cristóbal de Oñate, veedor de su magestad, about 30 years old; he has known Guzmán for about 7 years; he participated in the conquests of Nueva Galicia and the valles de Banderas, he has seen the mines of San Miguel, can sign, but no signature; Melchior Díaz, 30-something years old--missing paper, vecino de Compostela, has known Guzmán about 6 years, he has seen "muestras de oro y de plata" from San Miguel, can sign, but no signature; in October 1535 Guzmán grants his poder to a Juan Rodríguez, estante en Compostela; in July 1535 Guzmán orders five Indian leaders hung; on December 24, 1535 the audiencia orders that the Indian slaves of Samaniego and the other be returned to Nueva Galicia, where there are to serve their captors (is this one of Mendoza's first acts?); as a result, the audiencia notifies Rodrigo Méndez, Gutierre de Badajoz, el proveedor ?Alonso López, Andrés Núñez mercader, ?Juan López, and ?Francisco Martín, Pedro Veneciano, padre Alegrias, Juan Griego Girón, and Lorenzo Suárez that Indians they bought must be returned to the sellers; in January 1536 a Bartolomé Sánchez, estante en México, more than 40 years old, is called as a witness in support of two purchasers of slaves; so is Lope de Samaniego, alcaide, he was previously a regidor de México, can sign, but no signature];

Actas de Cabildo, Tomo III, p.105 [Jan 1, 1535, in the cabildo voting];

Millares Carlo y Montecón, Indice y extractos, II:2183 [fols. 546r y v: Acknowledgement of  a 330-peso debt by Luis de Sotomayor to Juan de Cervantes for merchadise paid for by Lope de Samaniego;

Millares Carlo y Montecón, Indice y extractos, II:2202 – 2203 [fols. 408v – 410v: Sale for 4,125 pesos de oro de minas by Lope de Samaniego, regidor, alcaide, and vecino de México, of a quarter share in minas y esclavos which he owns in partnership with Juan Alonso de Sosa, Juan de Burgos, y Diego de Logroño, to Gabriel Ruíz; the mine is bounded by others owned by Cortés, Juan Alonso de Sosa, Juan Alemán, and the partnership of Juan de Villaseñor and Juan Ruíz Martínez; #2371 (fols. 495r – 496r): July 16, 1537, Poder traspaso granted by Juan de Hermosa to Juan Bautista de Alcocer to collect debts from 14 persons (including several directly associated with the viceroy), including don Luis de Castilla, el alcaide Lope de Samaniego, Juan de Salamanca (sobrino de Santa Cruz), and Antonio de Mendoza];

AGI, Indiferente General, 422, L.17 [fol.50v: September 28, 1536 [cédula, licencia a Lope de Samaniego para pasar cuatro esclavos negros a Nueva España];

Actas de Cabildo, Tomo IV, p.1 [Jan 1, 1536, regidor], 9 [January 21, 1536, “Este dia cometieron a bernardino Vázquez de tapia e lope de samaniego que vayan a ver el camino que ay de aqui a la cantera e vea los pasos malos que ay para carretas...”]; p.32 [August 18, 1536, regidor de México]; p.50 [Nov. 10, 1536, alcaide de las atarazanas, solar]; p.98 [Sept. 1537, alcalde de las atarazanas, regidor, 2 suertes de tierra]; p.108 [1537, regidor, demasias de solar]; p.111-112 [Jan 1, 1538, regidor]; p.131-133 [witness to Vázquez de Coronado becoming regidor, June 1538];  p.159 [Jan 1, 1539, regidor]; p.161 [granted license to cut 400 vigas for house of Cristóbal de Oñate]

AGI, Justicia, 258, pieza 1, “Visita hecha al Virrey, 1544” [Samaniego was corregidor of the pueblo de Totolapa in 1537 and 1538 with a salary of 200 pesos/yr];

AGI, Justicia, 337B [1537, Melchior Díaz says that the alcaide Lope de Samaniego asked the opinion of the audiencia if they could take slaves, fol. 425r; Samaniego, witness: Mexico City, alcaide de las ataraçanas, more than 30 years old (b.<1507), present at most of the conquest of Nueva Galicia, has been in these parts for 15 years (came 1522 at the age of ~15), finds no fault with Guzmán, Samaniego sold his hacienda to Guzmán to repay him for the money he was given for the conquest, signed (no signature), fol. 560v-578r];

AGI, México, 95, N.39 [Dos cartas de Lope de Samaniego to the king, Dec. 1, 1537, ponga en efeto la mudada desta fortaleza de Mexico del sitio que agora tiene por ser para ningun effeto ynportante a otro que es en la calçada que desta ciubad de Mexico sale a Tacuba por ser el mejor y mas comodo para todos los effetos de necesidad que se pueden ofrecer; Dec. 10, 1537 - same letter, signaturescanned];

Bazarte Martínez, Cofradias de Españoles en la Ciudad de Mexico [Cathedral, capilla de la Cena, Archicofradía del Santísimo Sacramento y Caridad, 16 June 1538 in the Franciscan convent; founders: Juan Alonso de Sosa, Francisco Vázquez de Coronado, Juan Jarmillo(?), Jorge de Alvarado, Luis de Castilla (as contador), Francisco Rodríguez, Lope de Samaniego; 1548-founded by this cofradia, colegio de Nuestra Señora de La Caridad, for mestiza orphans but quickly was for Spanish orphans];

AGI, Justicia, 258, pieza 2, “Visita hecha al Virrey, 1544” [Account of of funds paid from the caja de tres llaves, Juan Alonso de Sosa, 1539, fol. 848v: ansymismo doy fee como por el dicho lybro pareçe que en viernes catorze dias del mes de junyo de myll y quinientos e treynta e ocho años estando juntos en cabildo el magnifyco señor licenciado loaysa e los nobles señores luys de la torre e francisco de terrazas alcaldes hordinarios en esta ciudad e antonio serano de cardona e lope de samanyego...];

AGI, Justicia, 258, pieza 1, “Relación de los salarios” [fol. 799r: Nov. 1539, a lope de samanyego...cc pesos];

AGI, Justicia, 1029, N.3 [Probanza hecha por Los Mineros de Nueva España, January 24, 1539; because of "la mucha costa e trabajo que se tenía en sacar el metal y en fundirlo e despues en finarlo" they say they can't afford to pay more than el diezmo; among the signers (total of 28) are don Luis de Castilla, a Pero Hernández, a Juan Pérez, Lope de Samaniego, Francisco Pilo, Juan Pérez de Vergara, and a Juan Hernández]

1540-1550:

Muster in Flint & Flint, Documents, Document 12 [16 or 17 horses, 2 elk hide jackets, chainmail vest with appurtenances, several breatplates, native arms; maestre del campo and alcaide];

AGI, Justicia, 267 [witness Vázquez de Coronado: he assigned company of horsemen to Samaniego];

AGI, Patronato, 21, N.2, R.3 [Document #14, testimony concerning members of the expedition, February 21-27, 1540; witness: Juan Fernández (vecino of Purificación recognized no vecinos of Mexico, but residents, except Domingo Martín, Alonso Sánchez, hijo of Alonso Pérez, 2 or 3 other possible vecinos, 2 vecinos of Guadalajara, Vázquez de Coronado (married in Mexico) and Lope de Samaniego (alcaide, not married]

Tello, Libro Segundo [p.151:Sept. 9, 1541 [Cabildo mentioned his death];

Actas de Cabildo, Tomo IV, p.296 [August 10, 1542: a Lope de Samaniego is listed as alcaide; since his death is mentioned 9/1541 in the cabildo this could be a reference to the past)]

AGI, Contratación, 197, N.21, R.19 [1546, Pánuco, "Relación  de los pesos de oro que el Dr. Castañeda enbio cobrado de Pánuco bienes de Francisco de Villegas y otros difuntos;" document is prepared in the ciudad de México; Antonio de Villadiego, vecino of Pánuco reported in 1546 in Mexico City, that Dr. Castañeda asked him to deliver gold, money and letters concerning the bienes difuntos in Pánuco that the Dr. had collected from doña Catalina de Mexía, widow of Francisco Barrón  [nothing in AGI search], now wife of Pedro de Trejo; this is the report Mexía gave him; in Santiago de los Valles, 20 Abril 1546, reported by Gonzalo Bernaldo; on 20 Abril Mexía is ordered to deliver whatever gold, money and letters she has regarding the bienes de difuntos of Francisco de Villegas, Juan Rodríguez, and anyone else; the juez de residencia informs Tello de Sandoval that there are many cases of bienes de difuntos from Santiago and the provincia; 28 May 1545 Tello de Sandoval demands that those handling these bienes report in person to him in Mexico City; 22 June 1545, Santistevan, del puerto de la provincia de Pánuco, it was publicly proclaimed that information regarding the bienes de difuntos will be collected and any frauds or negligence corrected; 1 Oct 1545, that Mexía, as wife of Francisco Barrón and vecina of Santistevan must produce info and pay 1000 pesos that belong to the estate of Francisco Villegas, in Compostela and Santisteban; Mexía reports she is doing the best  she can, since she is only the wife, and that her husband also dealt with Tonala and Jalisco; all the items in a chest she delivers, the cofre es de flandes de dos palmos mas o menos; items seem to pertain to Villegas, Francisco Guillén, francés (whose albacea was Juan Rodríguez who is evidently dead), but also IOUs, wills and cartas de pago; gold de Jalisco; she reports also bienes from Francisco Guillén Francés; her late husband was the albacea for Francisco Guillén and delivers an inventory of Guillén's effects; has an inventory taken in Compostela; among her late husband's papers she has 2 conocimientos against Cristóbal de Oñate; un mandamiento de Francisco Vázquez Coronado contra Francisco de Villegas de contia de 200+ pesos de oro apedimiento de Francisco Pilo acesonario de Pedro de Sosa; carta de pago de Hernando Bermejo-7 tomines; una carta from Juan Pastor; mandamiento contra Melchior Díaz; there are 2 inventories of goods of Francisco de Villegas: one in Santistevan (more pages) and the other in Compostela; a poder from Diego Rodríguez to a Pero Martín; 2 conocimientos from Juan Pérez; carta de pago from Miguel Sánchez; conocimiento from Juan Gallego, escribano; carta de pago from Lope de Samaniego (therefore have to be before early 1540);  carta de pago from Juan Gallegos; conocimiento contra Francisco Cornejo con un poder; 2 cartas de pago and a poder from an Alonso Martín; quenta de Francisco Cornejo; desembargo y mando de Cristóbal de Oñate; poder from Juan Rodríguez para el Francés [probably meaning Guillén]; from Juan Rodríguez 2 petitions, a letter; another letter from Juan Ruíz; conocimiento from Pedro de Najara; carta from Francisco Pilo; a conocimiento from Maese Miguel; an embargo by Francisco Vázquez de Coronado against the goods of Francisco de Villegas; the delivery was witnessed and signed by Juan de Gallegos in Santisteban; 11 Feb 1547 Mexía's husband makes a probanza in Mexico City regarding the bienes de difuntos of Francisco de Villegas, Francisco Guillén, Francés and Juan Rodríguez, all deceased and her deceased 1st husband; Barrón lived in Santiago de los Valles; witnesses included: Francisco de Godoy, 30+, native of Ubeda, vecino of Mexico City, saw Barrón collect the bienes of Guillén in Nueva Galicia, signed (no signature); February 1547 statement of Pedro de Trexo, current husband of Catalina Mexía"por razón de las costas e gastos e menoscabos de la hacienda del dicho Francisco Barrón que por su ausencia hubo y por su salario que de derecho le viene se retuvieron en ???? poder dozientos pesos de oro que corre para ayuda a lo dicho aunque es mucho mas lo que gasto e perdio en la dicha jornada [to travel from México to Nueva Galicia]" he presents an interrogatorio in which the first question asks if the witnesses are aware that Francisco Barrón collected bienes de difuntos in Nueva Galicia (Guadalajara y Compostela); he resided in Santiago de los Valles (Oxitipán) "que esta desta ciudad [México] ochenta leguas and "partió y fue con [los recaudos y escrituras] a la dicha Nueva Galicia;" he spent more than six months there collecting bienes; Francisco Guillén had gone to Nueva Galicia to collect bienes, but "estar la tierra alzada y de guerra...murió el dicho Francisco Guillén y dexo por su albacea a Francisco Barrón;"];

AGI, México, 1089, L.C.4 [fol.63r-63v: March 3, 1549 [cédula, restitution of property of Samaniego to descendants] [Samaniego: alcaide de las atarazanas and regidor of México]

1560-1570:

AGI, Patronato, 182, R.3 [October 1561, Guadalajara, Límites de Nueva Galicia; interrogatorio asks whether the witnesses know Rodrigo de Frías, vecino de Guadalajara and alcalde mayor of the mines of Comanja y Señora que estan en este reino; and whether they know don Diego de Guevara, alcalde mayor que fue de este reino [Nueva Galicia]; central issue is whether the Rio Grande as far as Querétero is one of the boundaries of Nueva Galicia; Guanajuato and the valle de Oxitipa are also involved; petition mentions that Francisco Vázquez de Coronado, gobernador que fue, conceded Querétaro to Pedro Vázquez, vecino de Compostela; then de la Torre gave it to Francisco Barrón, vecino de Guadalajara; a Pedro Gómez de Contreras is mentioned as a former teniente de alcalde mayor en las minas de Guanajuato; then "vuestra audiencia deste reino proveydo a Rodrigo de Frías, vecino de Guadalajara por alcalde mayor y justicia en las minas nuevas que se han descubierto en las sierras de Comanja que estan mucho mas cercanas a esta dicha ciudad [Guadalajara]...y estando el dicho alcalde mayor Rodrigo de Frías administrando e haciendo justicia un Juan de Jaso, vecino de la ciudad de México, con mano armada y gente que consigo trajo...;" Jaso went to where Frías was "con vara alta y con mucha gente armada y entro en las dichas minas...y le quito la vara que asi tenia en las manos forzablemente...y le maltrato e le trajo su persona;" Jaso had a provisión from Luis de Velasco; Pedro de Ledesma is one of the signatories to the petition, as a regidor of Guadalajara; Juan Tellez, escribano público, mentions ongoing pleitos with Cristóbal Pérez and Álvaro Ruíz, procuradores de la audiencia real de Nueva España, and with several other persons; an Hernando Alvarado, estante en Guadalajara, is a witness in November 1561; according to interrogatorio, Nuño de Guzmán granted Querétaro to Lope de Samaniego; "por fin y muerte del dicho Lope de Samaniego Francisco Vázquez de Coronado, gobernador que fue...deposito el pueblo de queretaro en Pero Vázquez, vecino de la ciudad de Compostela;" a witness to the presentation of witnesses is Francisco Roxo, vecino de Guadalajara; witnesses called include Rodrigo de Frías and Alonso Martín, vecinos de Guadalajara; Alonso Martín is a conquistador of Nueva Galicia, more than 55 years old; he only heard about Vázquez de Coronado substituting Pedro Vázquez for Lope de Samaniego; according to witness Diego Hurtado, "Pedro Vázquez vino a este reino al tiempo que el gobernador Francisco Vázquez de Coronado volvio de la conquista de Cíbola...y el dicho Francisco Vázquez lo tenia por suyo [because Pedro Vázquez had lost his mind] e ? xaramyllo trato pleito sobre ello e este vido que paso en el año de quarenta e tres"]

Other info: Castañeda in Flint & Flint, Documents, Document 28 [p.389: maestre de campo, alcaide of the dockyards, caballero; died];

Tello, Libro Segundo  [p.131/328 and 132/329: maese de campo];

Gerhard, Historical Geography [p.175: Metepec and Tepemaxalco];

Boyd-Bowman, Indice geobiográfico, II:8024 [in México by 1523; regidor, 1529] [went with Guzmán as captain] [vecino and regidor de México, 1537] [native of Segovia];

?RAH, 9/302 (D-27) [fols. 206v: Tabla genealógica…familia de Samaniego…Navarra]

García de Samaniego, son:

AGI, Guadalajara, 230, L.1 [García de Samaniego request from Nueva Galicia, son of Lope de Samaniego, deceased, who was the alcaide of the ataracanas in Mexico has made a Relación, is being given preferential treatment for getting a corregimiento, 1561 [fol.58r];

AGI, Pasajeros, L.4, E.2406 [García de Sámano [sic] son of Lope de Samaniego and Isabel Fálces, native of Mexico, to Nueva España, March 14th, 1565];

AGI, Indiferente General, 1966, L.15 [fol.260v: March 25, 1565 cédula says he is returning and taking his wife, children, three women, and mother-in-law];

Relatives:

?Dorantes de Carranza, Sumaría relación, 293 [a Catalina Samaniego married Juan Infante (the parents of Mariana Samaniego and Juan Infante Samaniego]